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Memorias, William Tecumseh Sherman

Memorias, William Tecumseh Sherman


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Memorias, William Tecumseh Sherman

Memorias, William Tecumseh Sherman

Esta es una de las autobiografías militares clásicas de todos los tiempos, escrita por uno de los generales más exitosos y controvertidos de la Guerra Civil estadounidense. Después de un comienzo bastante pobre de la guerra, Sherman se unió a US Grant a tiempo para luchar en Shiloh, y desde entonces hasta el final de la guerra estuvo estrechamente asociado con Grant, participando en sus campañas desde Shiloh hasta Chattanooga, antes de tomar el mando directo de la famosa marcha a Atlanta y luego a la costa. Esta proximidad con Grant y su participación en algunas de las campañas más importantes de la guerra hacen de este un trabajo invaluable para cualquier persona interesada en este período.

El primer cuarto de este libro nos lleva desde la infancia de Shermans, a través de su carrera militar temprana y hasta el comienzo de la guerra civil, mientras que el resto del libro se concentra en la guerra en sí, como se ve desde el propio punto de vista de Sherman.

El libro tiene una mezcla ligeramente incómoda de documentos originales y narrativos muy legibles, lo que lo hace de gran valor para el historiador, pero quizás menos accesible para el lector casual. Habiendo dicho eso, el texto de Sherman es claro y ordenado, y al igual que las memorias de Grant, se siente sorprendentemente moderno.

Autor: William Tecumseh Sherman
Edición: Tapa blanda
Páginas: 880
Editorial: Penguin Classics



William Tecumseh Sherman: Memorias del general W. T. Sherman

Aclamado como profeta de la guerra moderna y condenado como presagio de la barbarie moderna, William Tecumseh Sherman es el general más controvertido de la Guerra Civil estadounidense. "La guerra es crueldad y no se puede refinar", escribió con furia al alcalde confederado de Atlanta, y sus memorias están llenas de docenas de intercambios de ese tipo en tiempos de guerra. Con la energía propulsora y la inteligencia que marcaron sus campañas, Sherman describe incidentes y anécdotas sorprendentes y recopila docenas de sus órdenes e informes incisivos y, a menudo, francos en tiempos de guerra. Este complejo autorretrato de un innovador e implacable guerrero estadounidense ofrece relatos de primera mano de los acontecimientos cruciales de la guerra: Shiloh, Vicksburg, Chattanooga, la campaña de Atlanta, las marchas a través de Georgia y las Carolinas.

BIBLIOTECA DE AMÉRICA es una organización cultural independiente sin fines de lucro fundada en 1979 para preservar la herencia literaria de nuestra nación mediante la publicación y mantenimiento permanente de los mejores y más importantes escritos de Estados Unidos. La serie Library of America incluye más de 300 volúmenes hasta la fecha, ediciones autorizadas con un promedio de 1,000 páginas de extensión, cubiertas de tela, encuadernaciones cosidas y marcadores de cinta, y están impresas en papel de primera calidad sin ácido que durará siglos.

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Prefacio a la 1ra edición

Han pasado casi diez años desde el fin de la guerra civil en América y, sin embargo, el público no tiene acceso a una historia satisfactoria de la misma ni debe intentarse hasta que el gobierno haya publicado y puesto al alcance de los estudiantes los abundantes materiales que se encuentran disponibles. enterrado en el Departamento de Guerra de Washington. Estos están en proceso de compilación pero, al ritmo de progreso de los últimos diez años, es probable que llegue un nuevo siglo antes de que se publiquen y circulen, con índices completos que permitan al historiador hacer una selección juiciosa de materiales. Lo que ahora se ofrece no está diseñado como una historia de la guerra, ni siquiera como un relato completo de todos los incidentes en los que el escritor participó, sino simplemente su recuerdo de los eventos, corregido por una referencia a sus propios memorandos, que pueden ayudar al futuro historiador a describir el conjunto y explicar los motivos y razones que influyeron en algunos de los actores del gran drama de la guerra.

Confío en que una lectura de estas páginas resultará interesante para los supervivientes, que han manifestado tan a menudo su intenso amor por la "causa" que impulsó a una nación a reivindicar su propia autoridad y, igualmente, a la nueva generación, que de ahí puede aprender. que vale la pena luchar y morir por un país y un gobierno como el nuestro, si es necesario. Si tengo éxito en esto, me sentiré ampliamente recompensado por apartarme del uso de los militares, que rara vez intentan publicar sus propios hechos, pero se contentan con contribuir simplemente con sus actos al honor y la gloria de su país.

WILLIAM T. SHERMAN,
General
St. Louis, Missouri, 21 de enero de 1875.

¿Cuál fue la reacción al libro?

El objeto de la presente compilación, principalmente a partir de los registros oficiales, es mostrar dónde las Memorias del general Sherman no llegan a presentar la historia correcta de muchos grandes eventos de los que tratan, cuánto les falta para dar una descripción completa de los incidentes que relatan hasta qué punto el recuerdo del autor, incluso cuando es corregido por sus propios memorandos, es defectuoso y para proporcionar al futuro historiador hechos que lo protegerán de perpetuar el error y la injusticia que impregnan ambos volúmenes de la obra.

Este libro es una crítica a Sherman como general, sólo en la medida en que los registros oficiales presentados proporcionen tal crítica. No se intenta contradecir sus declaraciones, salvo que los registros las contradigan. Dondequiera que estos demuestren que ha cometido una grave injusticia tanto con los vivos como con los muertos, se producen con el mínimo comentario necesario para ponerlos en un orden conectado y señalar las refutaciones que contienen. Si bien por este método de revisión, solo se presentan sus errores, no ha habido ninguna intención de subestimar los grandes y brillantes servicios que realizó.

Si estas páginas sirven en algún grado para corregir el error y hacer justicia, donde el error no corregido y la injusticia cometida, afecten la reputación de hombres u oficiales, quienes, ya sea en una posición humilde o en una posición elevada, arriesgaron libremente sus vidas o las entregaron por país, se cumplirá el objeto para el que han sido redactados.

En respuesta, Sherman reclutó a su cuñado Charles W. Moulton para que escribiera una refutación detallada (publicada a expensas de Sherman). Durante la guerra, Moulton fue Intendente Asistente de Voluntarios, y en 1861 sirvió como Capitán del General McClellan en Virginia Occidental. Moulton dimitió en 1864 con el rango de coronel en el departamento de intendencia. En 1875 también era, como Boynton, un periodista experimentado. El resultado fue un panfleto de 87 páginas titulado The Review of General Sherman's Memoirs Examined, de Charles William Moulton, 1875.


En su prefacio, Moulton escribió:

No se ha intentado discutir completamente todos los puntos planteados en la revisión [de Boynton] de las Memorias de Sherman. Para hacer esto, se necesitaría acceso total a los registros del Departamento de Guerra y más tiempo del que puedo disponer. El único intento ha sido mostrar que los documentos publicados en la Review [nuevamente, el uso del término de Boynton's Review Moulton es confuso, ya que se escribe con mayúscula aquí, pero no la primera vez] son, casi por sí solos, suficientes para refutar los cargos más graves contra el general Sherman.

Charles William Moulton, 1875

Por lo tanto, en secuencia y todos publicados en 1875, tiene 1) Sherman Memorias, seguida de 2) la revisión crítica de Boynton, seguida de 3) la contrarrevisión de Moulton que confirma el relato de los hechos de Sherman.

¿A qué se debió todo el alboroto?

  • no cumplió con su deber en la batalla Missionary Ridge
  • falló en capturar o destruir el ejército del general Johnston en el Dalton, y censuró injustamente al general McPherson por su escape
  • fue incapacitado en la batalla de Atlanta
  • fue descuidado al permitir que el general Hardee escapara de Savannah
  • no fue el creador de la famosa "Marcha hacia el mar", pero el general Grant fue

Moulton respondió a estas críticas una por una. Respecto al último, Moulton escribió:

¿Sherman originó la marcha hacia el mar? Este crítico [Boynton] dedica 30 páginas impares de su libro para intentar mostrar que Sherman no fue el autor de este movimiento, y por cierto, intenta mostrar que Grant fue el autor del mismo.

Para el lector común, las razones por las que se hace este intento [de desacreditar a Sherman] no son evidentes. Es indiscutible que el movimiento fue ejecutado por Sherman de una manera satisfactoria para el general Grant y para el país.

Sherman dice que lo planeó, el presidente Lincoln confirma la declaración y Grant nunca la ha cuestionado.

Grant era presidente cuando salió el libro de Sherman. Sin embargo, antes de leerlo, se enteró de las críticas de Boynton y se sintió bastante consternado de que el periodista llamara a su viejo amigo, en efecto, mentiroso. Aunque estaba bastante ocupado con los deberes oficiales, envió una copia de los 2 volúmenes de Sherman y los revisó línea por línea durante un período de 3 semanas. De su revisión, Grant concluyó:

. Cuando terminé el libro, descubrí que aprobaba cada palabra que, aparte de algunos errores, que cualquier escritor cometería en una obra tan voluminosa, era un libro verdadero, un libro honorable, digno de crédito para Sherman, solo para sus compañeros. - para mí en particular - un libro como el que esperaba que escribiera Sherman. Que era exacto, porque Sherman lleva un diario, y compiló el libro a partir de notas tomadas en ese momento. Entonces es un hombre muy exacto. No puedes imaginar lo complacido que estaba, porque mi respeto y afecto por Sherman eran tan grandes. Tomando el libro de Sherman como un todo, es un trabajo sólido, verdadero y honesto, y una valiosa contribución a la historia de la guerra.

Otros salieron en defensa de Sherman, incluido el general de la Union Cavalry Judson Kilpatrick en una larga carta al New York Times el 24 de enero de 1876. Los documentos existentes, en retrospectiva, hacen que el libro de Boynton parezca un 'trabajo de hacha', escrito más para algunos engrandecimiento que dejar las cosas claras.

¿Cómo reaccionó Sherman a las críticas de Boynton?

Inicialmente, Sherman dispuso que varias personas, incluido su cuñado Moulton, escribieran tratados refutando a Boynton. Pero la diatriba de Boynton siguió molestándolo. En 1880 fue entrevistado por un reportero de la Líder de Cleveland y fue citado diciendo sobre Boynton: "Todo el mundo sabe que es un difamador notorio. Podrías contratarlo para hacer cualquier cosa por dinero. Por mil dólares, calumniaría a su propia madre".

En ese momento, Boynton inició los procedimientos judiciales, demandando a Sherman por difamación y difamación y solicitando un consejo de guerra para Sherman con el cargo de "conducta impropia de un oficial y un caballero". La solicitud llegó hasta el amigo de Boynton, el presidente Rutherford B. Hayes, quien negó el consejo de guerra. Sherman luego desafió a Boynton a que lo demandara en los tribunales civiles, pero no se emprendieron más acciones legales. Básicamente, Boynton se retractó de una pelea legal y Sherman terminó ganando la batalla de las palabras. (La campaña de Chickamauga, ed. Por Steven E. Woodworth, págs. 171-172)

¿Cuándo salió la 2ª edición?

  • Aproximadamente 50 correcciones y revisiones realizadas al cuerpo del texto, todas ellas menores pero en respuesta a cartas y comentarios recibidos la década anterior. Sherman se negó a revisar su texto original sobre la base de que "Renuncio a mi carácter de historiador, pero asumo ser un testigo en el estrado ante el gran tribunal de la historia" y "cualquier testigo que pueda estar en desacuerdo conmigo debería publicar su propia versión de [los] hechos en la narración veraz que le interesan ".
  • Un nuevo prefacio, por lo que el libro tiene tanto el original como un segundo prefacio.
  • Un nuevo capítulo al comienzo del libro, que abarca el período 1820-1846.
  • Un nuevo capítulo al final del libro que cubre los eventos posteriores a la guerra, que termina con su retiro del ejército en 1884.
  • Un apéndice que enumera muchas de las cartas que recibió.
  • Retratos y mapas mejorados.
  • Un índice.

Sherman y el arma secreta n. ° 8217 era su experto en mapas

El teniente coronel William Merrill, de pie a la izquierda de la mesa con la mano izquierda en el mapa, y sus compañeros del ejército de Cumberland "dibujantes", fotografiados por Mathew Brady al final de la guerra. (Mathew Brady / Departamento de Guerra / Archivos Nacionales)

William Merrill elevó la cartografía a una ciencia que ayudó a los comandantes de la Unión a ganar la guerra

EN SUS MEMORIAS, William Tecumseh Sherman escribió que sus alforjas siempre contenían cuatro elementos esenciales: "una muda de ropa interior, un frasco de whisky, puros y mis mapas". Sherman creía que los mapas precisos eran invaluables para el éxito de cualquier campaña militar y llegó a valorar las habilidades de los ingenieros topográficos del Ejército de Cumberland por encima de todos los demás. Sabía que eran hombres entrenados con estándares exigentes. Si bien Jedediah Hotchkiss, topógrafo jefe de Stonewall Jackson, es probablemente el cartógrafo más conocido de la Guerra Civil, fue el teniente coronel William Emery Merrill, más que nadie, quien avanzó en el campo. Merrill tomó una tarea que había sido realizada por talentosos aficionados o ingenieros del ejército que trabajaban a tiempo parcial y la elevó a una ciencia realizada por profesionales cuyo único trabajo era producir mapas militares y mantenerlos actualizados. Si bien muchos de los mapas de Merrill se conservan en la Biblioteca del Congreso, el propio hombre casi se ha escapado de las páginas de la historia. Casi, pero no del todo.

Aunque Merrill era un ingeniero consumado, la fama fugaz que ganó se debió a las habilidades cartográficas que desarrolló durante la guerra. (Subastas de Cowan)

METROerrill nunca podría haber dibujado un solo mapa si su padre no hubiera muerto cuando el niño tenía casi 10 años. El Capitán Moses Merrill fue asesinado al frente de la 5ta Infantería de los Estados Unidos en la Batalla de Molino del Rey de 1847 durante la Guerra de México. Debido a que Merrill se graduó en 1826 de la Academia Militar de EE. UU., Su muerte permitió al presidente Franklin Pierce nominar al hijo mayor del capitán a West Point como candidato heredado de Fort Howard, Wisconsin, en 1854. Merrill no decepcionó. Se graduó primero en la promoción de 1859 y, después de varias asignaciones de campo, estaba enseñando ingeniería en West Point cuando estalló la Guerra Civil.

La primera asignación en tiempos de guerra para Merrill, un subteniente recién nombrado, fue en el Departamento de Ohio, donde realizó el trabajo que normalmente realizaban los ingenieros del ejército. Supervisó la construcción de fortificaciones en Red House, Maryland, y en Cheat Mountain en Virginia (ahora Virginia Occidental). Durante el 12 al 15 de septiembre de 1861, la Batalla de Cheat Summit Fort, Merrill y otros 64 soldados de la Unión fueron capturados durante múltiples, aunque infructuosos, asaltos confederados. Era la primera vez que Merrill estaba bajo fuego y el desfavorable debut en la Guerra Civil del general Robert E. Lee.

Merrill fue enviado a Richmond y permaneció allí como prisionero de guerra hasta febrero de 1862. Después de una breve libertad condicional, Merrill fue enviado a Fort Monroe, luego asignado al ejército del Potomac. La marcha metódica del mayor general George B. McClellan por la península de Virginia hacia Richmond necesitaba ingenieros para preparar emplazamientos de asedio y campamentos para más de 100.000 soldados. Mientras estaba asignado al estado mayor del comandante del 4o Cuerpo, mayor general Erasmus Keyes, Merrill casi fue asesinado el 16 de abril de 1862 por un fragmento de proyectil mientras reconocía las posiciones de la artillería confederada con los escaramuzadores de la 3a infantería de Vermont cerca de Lee's Mill, en las afueras de Yorktown, Virginia. .

El terreno pantanoso del río Warwick dificultaba el avistamiento de posiciones enemigas desde la distancia. En Brig. En el informe del enfrentamiento del general Winfield Scott Hancock, señaló "la hermosa manera en que el teniente Merrill y el teniente Bowen, los ingenieros, hicieron sus observaciones bajo el fuego del enemigo y a corta distancia de sus armas". Merrill fue nombrado capitán por su conducta galante.

Después de recuperarse en Washington, D.C., Merrill se hizo cargo temporalmente de los proyectos de construcción del ejército para fortalecer el anillo protector de fuertes alrededor de la capital federal. Luego se fue al oeste como ingeniero supervisor para supervisar la construcción de defensas alrededor de Newport y Covington, Ky., Justo al otro lado del río Ohio desde Cincinnati, y luego fue amenazado por los asaltantes confederados del mayor general Edmund Kirby Smith. Desde noviembre de 1862 hasta marzo de 1863, Merrill se desempeñó como ingeniero jefe del Ejército de Kentucky, asignado a construir defensas a lo largo del Ferrocarril Central de Kentucky. Después de eso, Merrill ayudó a fortificar Franklin, Tennessee, y mejoró las defensas en Fort Donelson y Clarksville, Tennessee.

El 29 de mayo de 1863, La vida de Merrill como ingeniero itinerante terminó y comenzó la era de la cartografía profesional. Antes de la guerra, el general de división de la Unión William S. Rosecrans pasó 10 años con el Cuerpo de Ingenieros y conocía el valor de los mapas precisos. Los usó en Virginia Occidental a principios de la guerra, muchos de los triunfos de McClellan allí en 1861 se debieron al considerable conocimiento geográfico de Rosecrans y al estudio de los mapas de área disponibles. Después de su victoria en la batalla de Stones River en enero de 1863, Rosecrans sabía que su próximo objetivo sería expulsar a las fuerzas confederadas de Middle Tennessee y capturar Chattanooga. Su recién formado Ejército de Cumberland necesitaría mapas precisos para comprender la diversa geografía de la región.

Con las Órdenes Generales No. 124, Rosecrans anunció que Merrill sería "oficial de ingenieros a cargo del departamento topográfico ... Todos los topógrafos de cuerpo, división y brigada estarán bajo la dirección profesional del Capitán Merrill". Ese orden cambió la forma en que se elaborarían los mapas militares y ayudó al Ejército de Cumberland a crear y mantener el mejor cuerpo de topógrafos de la Unión.

Merrill no dejó ningún detalle al azar. Necesitaba una lista actualizada de todos los ingenieros topográficos de las brigadas y divisiones junto con una lista de los instrumentos y materiales de dibujo que tenían a mano. Pidió estimaciones del tipo y la cantidad de suministros que cada ingeniero necesitaría para hacer su trabajo. Incluso publicó un cuaderno de dibujo de campo de bolsillo que contenía símbolos estandarizados para carreteras de carretas buenas y malas, senderos, ríos, arroyos, marismas, ciudades, edificios y otros elementos que deberían aparecer en un buen mapa militar. Esto permitió a los cartógrafos y oficiales leer cualquier mapa y obtener el mismo tipo de información.

Los mapas tenían que dibujarse en papel rayado con cuadrados de una pulgada. La transferencia de información de mapas existentes se haría solo con lápiz y la nueva información o correcciones se ingresarían usando lápices de colores. Cada topógrafo de brigada y división informaba sobre sus actividades a Merrill cada semana, proporcionando "copias de todos los mapas especiales y reconocimientos (completos o no) hechos por él o bajo su dirección, incluida toda la información topográfica verbal o escrita". Esto permitió a Merrill producir y distribuir a todos los comandantes mapas que contenían la información más reciente disponible para el ejército. La sede del departamento produciría el producto terminado conocido como mapa de información.

Se requirió que todos los oficiales ayudaran a los ingenieros topográficos y no les asignaran otras tareas mientras realizaban sus asignaciones de cartografía. En general, Merrill instó a sus topógrafos a "averiguar todo lo que pueda que pueda afectar los movimientos militares en el país investigado, particularmente el carácter de la carretera y los suministros de pasto y agua".


Este mapa de Middle Tennessee es un excelente ejemplo del cuidado y la complejidad que Merrill invirtió en cada uno de sus mapas. Se utilizaron lápices de mina para los datos transferidos de otros mapas. Las correcciones se realizaron únicamente con lápices de colores. (Cuerpo de Ingenieros de los Estados Unidos / Biblioteca del Congreso)

Después de seis meses de inactividad alrededor de Murfreesboro, Tenn., Rosecrans finalmente puso a su ejército en movimiento el 24 de junio de 1863. Para entonces, sus comandantes habían estudiado mapas que mostraban las carreteras que conducen al este del río Tennessee, calculado sus capacidades y limitaciones, y señalado los lugares donde pudo encontrar agua y forraje. Rosecrans incorporó nueva información proporcionada por sus cartógrafos en sus detalladas órdenes de marcha diarias. Para cuando terminó su campaña el 3 de julio de 1863, Rosecrans había maniobrado hábilmente al Ejército de Tennessee del general confederado Braxton Bragg completamente fuera de Middle Tennessee. Al precio de solo 560 bajas, Rosecrans había avanzado 80 millas hasta las orillas del río Tennessee. Conocida como la Campaña de Tullahoma, se considera una de las operaciones tácticamente más brillantes de la guerra. Cuando las fuerzas de la Unión llegaron a las afueras de Chattanooga, la elaboración de mapas se había convertido en una parte integral de la capacidad bélica del Ejército de Cumberland. En su informe de la campaña, Rosecrans rindió homenaje a la “habilidad del Capitán W.E. Merrill, ingeniero, cuya exitosa recopilación y encarnación de información topográfica, rápidamente impresa por el rápido proceso del Capitán William C. Margedant y distribuida a los comandantes de cuerpo y división, ya ha contribuido en gran medida a la facilidad y el éxito de nuestros movimientos en un país de topografía difícil y hasta ahora desconocida ”.

Pero los días de Old Rosy con el ejército de Cumberland estaban contados. Después de la humillante derrota en Chickamauga el 20 de septiembre de 1863, Rosecrans se retiró a las defensas de Chattanooga. Permitió que los confederados ocuparan todo el terreno elevado alrededor de la ciudad, atrapando a su ejército cansado y hambriento. Cuando el mayor general Ulysses S. Grant llegó el 23 de octubre, enviado por el secretario de Guerra Edwin M. Stanton para evaluar la situación, relevó a Rosecrans de su mando y entregó el ejército de Cumberland y sus cartógrafos al mayor general George. H. Thomas.

Thomas también era un hábil cartógrafo. Desde sus primeras campañas, mantuvo su propio diario de mapas de bolsillo en el que registraba la topografía del campo donde luchaba. Thomas dibujó un mapa en una página y en la página opuesta tomó notas sobre el terreno, las condiciones de las carreteras, la profundidad de los vados, la altura de las colinas y montañas, la disponibilidad de agua potable y forraje. Este "mapa de memorias" narrativo contenía información que no se podía traducir gráficamente pero que podría ser útil para campañas militares exitosas. Thomas sabía que el próximo teatro de operaciones sería el norte de Georgia y puso a trabajar a sus cartógrafos.

En marzo de 1864, Grant fue al este para tomar el mando de todos los ejércitos de la Unión. Asignó a su viejo amigo, Sherman, el mando general de todas las fuerzas de la Unión al oeste de los alemanes.
Montañas Gheny. Sherman sabía que los ingenieros topográficos del Ejército de Cumberland, hombres entrenados según los exigentes estándares de Merrill, eran mejores que los de cualquier otro ejército y los mantuvo como los principales topógrafos del nuevo ejército que estaba reuniendo para su entrada en Georgia. Sherman tenía la intención de abrir el balón contra el general confederado Joseph E. Johnston y su ejército de Tennessee, esperando detrás de fuertes fortificaciones defensivas en Dalton, Georgia, a unas 30 millas al sureste, el 5 de mayo de 1864, coincidiendo con el comienzo de Grant's Campaña por tierra en Virginia.


Como se muestra en este mapa de Franklin, Tennessee, Merrill y su equipo utilizaron papel rayado con cuadrados de 1 pulgada para sus creaciones perfeccionadas. (William Emery Merrill / Biblioteca del Congreso)

El terreno entre Chattanooga y Atlanta es una maraña de serpenteantes crestas, pasos estrechos, rápidos ríos, vados de arroyos rocosos y caminos agrícolas de arcilla roja, una topografía difícilmente ideal para que un ejército invasor de 100.000 hombres y 35.000 animales la atraviese. Un "mapa de planos" de la tierra conocida como la Compra Cherokee se había dibujado en la década de 1840 para mostrar municipios y secciones. Los cartógrafos sindicales querían usar copias de ese mapa para señalar puntos de referencia específicos.

Merrill y su personal trabajaron en un mapa del norte de Georgia durante el invierno de 1863-64, utilizando como guía el Mapa del estado de Georgia de James R. Butt. Pero pocos días antes de que Sherman intentara comenzar su ofensiva, el U.S. Coast Survey en Washington, D.C., envió mapas a menor escala del área a su sede en Chattanooga. Merrill aún no había distribuido copias del enorme original, esperando incorporar la información más reciente traída por el sargento Nathan Finnegan del 4º de Caballería de Ohio. Finnegan había pintado carteles, frescos y retratos antes de la guerra. Ahora se destacaba en la recopilación de información de una variedad de espías, exploradores, refugiados, viajeros, prisioneros, vendedores ambulantes y predicadores itinerantes: los restos del naufragio local que podían proporcionar los fragmentos críticos de información que significaban la diferencia entre un mapa militar deficiente y uno bueno. .

Al igual que Rosecrans y Thomas antes que él, Sherman enfatizó la importancia de los mapas para todos los comandantes de su unidad. El 31 de mayo de 1864, las Órdenes Especiales de Campo No. 15 enumeraron las pautas "para asegurar el trabajo conjunto rápido y eficiente de los departamentos de ingenieros topográficos del ejército en el campo". Según la orden de Sherman, el deber de los ingenieros topográficos era "realizar estudios puramente militares". Cuando estaban en movimiento, inspeccionarían la ruta de sus comandos. Cuando el ejército se detuviera, estas encuestas se consolidarían y se emitirían nuevos mapas. Finalmente, Sherman ordenó a todos los comandantes que ayudaran a sus ingenieros topográficos para "asegurar los datos a partir de los cuales compilar, en el momento más temprano, mapas que son indispensablemente necesarios en los movimientos militares ..."

Sherman insistió en que todos sus oficiales pudieran trabajar desde el mismo mapa, pero le dio a Merrill poca anticipación de sus planes de marcha. “Dos días antes de que el ejército partiera de Chattanooga en la Campaña de Atlanta, recibí un aviso de la marcha prevista”, escribiría Merrill. "Hasta este momento sólo había una copia del gran mapa del norte de Georgia, y estaba en manos de los dibujantes".

Después de la guerra, Merrill describió sus frenéticos esfuerzos para imprimir 200 copias del mapa y distribuirlas a los comandantes de Sherman: “El mapa se cortó inmediatamente en dieciséis secciones y se dividió entre los dibujantes, a quienes se les ordenó trabajar día y noche hasta que todos las secciones se habían trazado en papel fino con tinta autógrafa. Tan pronto como se terminaron cuatro secciones adyacentes, se transfirieron a una piedra grande y se imprimieron doscientas copias. Una vez que todo el mapa había sido litografiado, los montadores de mapas comenzaron su trabajo ... Las copias para la caballería se imprimieron directamente en muselina, ya que dichos mapas se podían lavar cuando estaban sucios y no podían dañarse con un servicio duro ". Merrill, que nunca se dio a la autopromoción, concluyó con orgullo que “antes de que los generales al mando dejaran Chattanooga, cada uno había recibido una copia encuadernada del mapa, y antes de que atacamos al enemigo, cada comandante de brigada, división y cuerpo de los tres ejércitos había una copia."

A medida que avanzaba el gigante de la Unión, Merrill hizo que las tropas se apoderaran de mapas en las oficinas del secretario del condado y se aseguró de que las patrullas de caballería reunieran a los topógrafos e ingenieros locales para sus mapas. Los soldados se detendrían en las residencias locales a medida que avanzaban para pedir los números de municipio y sección, lo que permitiría dibujar nuevos mapas de área en un patrón de cuadrícula. Por primera vez, los comandantes podían usar coordenadas y referirse a posiciones usando un sistema de números. Merrill sabía que “de esta manera podemos obtener puntos fijos y así obviar una de las mayores dificultades en el mapeo de un nuevo país”.

Aunque Merrill admitió que sus mapas serían menos precisos cuanto más profundamente penetrara el ejército en territorio enemigo, sostuvo: “Seguía siendo valioso incluso cuando la información era defectuosa, porque cada subordinado tenía el mismo mapa que el general al mando y sabía que en una vez por la naturaleza de sus órdenes lo que se esperaba que hiciera ". El ejército que Sherman condujo a Atlanta, se jactó Merrill, era "el mejor provisto de mapas de todos los que luchó en la [guerra]".

Un fortín a lo largo de Nashville & amp Chattanooga Railroad, uno de los más de 160 que diseñaría Merrill. (Biblioteca del Congreso)

A pesar de la indispensable ayuda de Merrill, Sherman eligió a su propio ingeniero jefe, Orlando Metcalfe Poe, un experto en la construcción de puentes, carreteras y pontones, para trazar el progreso del ejército mientras recorría Georgia y las Carolinas. Merrill regresó brevemente a Chattanooga para formar un regimiento aprobado por el Congreso de Ingenieros Veteranos de la Reserva, encargados de construir defensas para 850 millas críticas de ferrocarril de vía única en el Teatro Occidental. Merrill diseñó más de 160 fortines, la mayoría en puntos críticos como puentes, que eran resistentes a la artillería de campo de pequeño calibre transportada por la caballería y podían ser tripulados por tan solo 30 hombres.

Merrill se quedó con el Cuerpo de Ingenieros del Ejército en la posguerra, convirtiéndose en teniente coronel en febrero de 1883. De 1867 a 1870, se desempeñó como ingeniero jefe en el estado mayor de Sherman, y entonces comandaba la División Militar del Missouri. A partir de entonces, hasta su muerte, se dedicó a trabajos de ingeniería gubernamental. Fue ingeniero jefe en uno de los proyectos más grandes emprendidos por el Cuerpo: la construcción de esclusas y canales en el río Ohio debajo de Pittsburgh.

En 1889, Merrill representó al Cuerpo de Ingenieros en el Congreso Internacional de Ingenieros en París, pero dos años más tarde murió de insuficiencia cardíaca mientras viajaba en tren cerca de En-
Field, Ill. Está enterrado en el Cementerio Nacional de Arlington.

Gordon Berg es un escritor independiente de Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Exposiciones del sur

Capitán William C. Margedant (David Waddle McClung, Centennial Anniversary of the City of Hamilton, Ohio, 17-19 de septiembre de 1891, Hamilton Ohio)

Capitán William C. Margedant (derecha) había sido el ingeniero topográfico jefe de Rosecrans antes del nombramiento de Merrill, y su "proceso rápido" de duplicar mapas fue fundamental para el éxito de la campaña Tullahoma de Rosecrans en junio-julio de 1863. Originario de Prusia, Margedant trabajó como arquitecto e ingeniero en Cincinnati antes de servir como capitán en la 10ma Infantería de Ohio. Mientras estaba en el personal de Rosecrans en Virginia Occidental a principios de la guerra, inventó un método para duplicar mapas rápidamente en el campo. Su "dispositivo de impresión fotográfica" [sic] consistía en una caja de luz que contenía baños de goma India tratados químicamente que encajaban unos dentro de otros. La impresión se realizó trazando un mapa en papel de seda fino, colocándolo sobre papel fotográfico tratado con nitrato de plata y exponiéndolo al sol. Esto produjo una copia negativa del mapa con carreteras, ríos y otros puntos de referencia que aparecen en blanco sobre un fondo oscuro. Las secciones del mapa se pueden coser juntas en lienzo o tela, barnizar y

Esta rara muestra existente de un mapa "negro" o "sol" de Margedant, de Chattanooga y alrededores, ahora se conoce como una "impresión de contacto". Se imprimiría y revisaría en el campo utilizando un cuarto oscuro móvil. (NOAA Historic Coast and Geodetic Survey Collection/National Archives)

then distributed each night to all corps, divisions, and brigades, as well as individual regiments operating alone. Margedant’s staff consolidated notes received daily from the topographical engineers, revised the master tissue, and, with little delay, maps and charts containing everything ascertained the day before were in the hands of all commanding officers.–G.B.

This story appeared in the November 2019 issue of America’s Civil War.


Community Reviews

Many of my friends saw that I was reading this book and automatically replied with "Ugh! I pity you!" (granted, we are all Southerners)

First off, I found Sherman&aposs text fascinating. He was an excellent writer and brought me into the scenes in which he lived.

Secondly, this was super clean! I think of military as a cussing hole, but I came across next to no curse words (a few uses of God&aposs name in vain when he was quoting others).

Thirdly, Sherman copied many letters and telegrams, so the opinion I Many of my friends saw that I was reading this book and automatically replied with "Ugh! I pity you!" (granted, we are all Southerners)

First off, I found Sherman's text fascinating. He was an excellent writer and brought me into the scenes in which he lived.

Secondly, this was super clean! I think of military as a cussing hole, but I came across next to no curse words (a few uses of God's name in vain when he was quoting others).

Thirdly, Sherman copied many letters and telegrams, so the opinion I formed of Sherman was not made by him presenting himself as an upstanding citizen who never did wrong. Through his letters I got a good picture of who he was and what his view were. Yes, I did find that he was somewhat aloof to the humanity of the army, but then there were times when he did reach out to protect and prevent cruelty from happening. I did not at all find him to be the "monster" that many historians portray him to be.

Fourthly, this was a very political read (in other words, many times went over my head). It was fascinating to see the brain-work behind the tactics that Sherman and Grant used for their side of the War.

Fifthly, this covers not only the Civil War, but more or less Sherman's life as a soldier--starting with his work in California and ending at his resignation.

Sixth, I did enjoy this read. I can't lie. There were many gems of helpful information throughout these pages and it gave me an overall good view of the war (sometimes for both sides, as letters were shared between enemies). I can't say that I would read it again because of it's massive 800-page count, but I don't regret spending my time reading it. . más

Sherman&aposs as well as Grant&aposs memoirs are two classic pieces of American 19th century non-fiction. I&aposd always heard tales of Sherman the beast but Sherman the man comes through in these pages. The man had a fascinating career. Starting as 2nd Lt in Florida in the Seminole Wars, to occupying California during and after the Mexican War. In that capacity, Sherman assays the first gold brought out of Sutter&aposs Mill and performs the initial survey of the gold fields. He later tries banking in San Franc Sherman's as well as Grant's memoirs are two classic pieces of American 19th century non-fiction. I'd always heard tales of Sherman the beast but Sherman the man comes through in these pages. The man had a fascinating career. Starting as 2nd Lt in Florida in the Seminole Wars, to occupying California during and after the Mexican War. In that capacity, Sherman assays the first gold brought out of Sutter's Mill and performs the initial survey of the gold fields. He later tries banking in San Francisco but the bank fails during the Panic of 1857. He then becomes the first superintendent of the Louisiana State Seminary and Military Academy, now known as LSU.

Early in the Civil War he's considered insane or a fool by many for believing it will take the Union over 200,000 men to defeat the Confederacy. By the end of the war he would be commanding over that amount in the Western Theater alone.

Sherman writing style is extremely easy to read. He knows how to turn a good phrase and tell a humorous story. He's a creature of the Army and suffers no fools. His venom is particular toxic for the press - I hate newspapermen. They come into camp and pick up their camp rumors and print them as facts. I regard them as spies, which, in truth, they are.

He relates well his close relationship with other officers such as Halleck, Ord and especially Grant - Grant stood by me when I was crazy and I stood by him when he was drunk and now we stand by each other.

And the man who made Georgia howl knew the brutality of war all too well - I am tired and sick of war. Its glory is all moonshine. It is only those who have neither fired a shot nor heard the shrieks and groans of the wounded who cry aloud for blood, for vengeance, for desolation. War is hell.

He was also generous to a fault. Willing giving to any of his former troopers who came in later years to his door - But, my dear sirs, when peace does come, you may call on me for any thing. Then will I share with you the last cracker, and watch with you to shield your homes and families against danger from every quarter.

And rare for a successful general, he held no political ambitions - If forced to choose between the penitentiary and the White House for four years, I would say the penitentiary, thank you.

As a Cincinnati native, I enjoyed the references to the area, such as when he drops his daughter off at Notre Dame Academy in Reading, Ohio and his planning with Grant the 1864 campaign at the Burnet House. The campaign that would finally win the war.

An amazing life of a colorful man told in his own words. What could be better?
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While not an easy read, Sherman&aposs Memoirs are a must for anyone interested in mid-to-late-1800s American history.

While Sherman is infamous throughout the South due to the burning of several southern cities, his memoirs go well beyond his role as a Union general. His memoirs recount many cornerstone events in America, including the California gold rush and the building of the trans-continental railroads.

His account of the Civil War gives incredible insight into the magnitude of the Union campaign While not an easy read, Sherman's Memoirs are a must for anyone interested in mid-to-late-1800s American history.

While Sherman is infamous throughout the South due to the burning of several southern cities, his memoirs go well beyond his role as a Union general. His memoirs recount many cornerstone events in America, including the California gold rush and the building of the trans-continental railroads.

His account of the Civil War gives incredible insight into the magnitude of the Union campaign. It is almost impossible to truly understand the scale of Sherman's march through the South without such an account. The collection of food and supplies for tens of thousands of soldiers is an incredible task for any general to have organized. While Sherman has been accredited for his successes as a military general, he deserves an equal amount of credit for his supreme organization during the campaign.

Personally, my favorite parts of the books were his various letter correspondences. Especially notable were his correspondences with Confederate General Hood regarding the civilian evacuation of Atlanta and his correspondences with Secretary of War Stanton near the end of the war.

I thoroughly enjoyed Sherman's 19th Century language and syntax, which are absent in any modern accounts of the War. Sherman's language enhances the story an integral time in our history, an account that demands respect for all of those who worked to preserve the unity of our nation. . más

It&aposs important to admit bias up front, and I will tell you that I went into this with a strong sense of near-adulation. Sherman has long been my greatest hero among American generals. I have surely been getting a very different sense of perspective at the same time, because Shelby Foote&aposs trilogy is in the master bathroom, opposite the toilet where it belongs, because it&aposs a huge volume and it fits neatly on the flat hamper there, and because my spouse and I can only read so much of that man (Fo It's important to admit bias up front, and I will tell you that I went into this with a strong sense of near-adulation. Sherman has long been my greatest hero among American generals. I have surely been getting a very different sense of perspective at the same time, because Shelby Foote's trilogy is in the master bathroom, opposite the toilet where it belongs, because it's a huge volume and it fits neatly on the flat hamper there, and because my spouse and I can only read so much of that man (Foote) before our gag reflex kicks in. But I digress.

Sherman's memoir is remarkable. He was one of those rare beings, both a soldier and an incredible scholar, one in the mold of Lewis and Clark, perhaps. He headed a military academy in Louisiana when the South seceded, and after giving a moving farewell speech to his students--the man gives a sense of being capable of really creating personal bonds, while at the same time knowing that if he has to say goodbye forever, he'll do it--and went to Washington to seek orders.

Sherman is an outstanding writer, and his voice comes through loud and clear. I confess my affection for him is marred slightly by his horrific perspective (probably not unusual among Caucasians of the time period, but this guy never did anything halfway) toward the American Indian. I decided enough was enough, and skipped forward to the Civil War. My husband, whom I will call Mr. Computer, was also reading it, as we had accidentally procured two copies, and he did the same.

The opening years of the war are incredibly frustrating to study. McClellan had been a big-deal general during the war against Mexico, and he was initially placed in charge, while Grant and Sherman lingered in the background out west, each having left the military under a cloud, Grant for his drinking during the Mexican war, and Sherman as having been perceived as crazy. (Today I think a nice bottle of Xanax or Valium would've done wonders for the man in peace time years, because I believe he merely suffered from anxiety, and there's a lot of that out there)!

By reading Sherman, one does not get an account of the whole Civil War he can't rightfully provide such a thing, because this is a memoir, so he writes about the places he went and the battles in which he took part. He is lavish in his praise of competent or even excellent officers, and takes pains to mention as many as possible by name, sending them down in history as heroes alongside himself.

His most famous contribution, the 3-campaigns-in-one march of some 425 miles, from the siege of Atlanta, to its invasion, and his willingness to tell the truth and avoid the senseless pussyfooting of his predecessors, who had stupidly believed that by firing over the heads of the Confederates, they could scare them into submission, is an inspiration. He understood that in order to win a war and have it be over, the gloves must come off, and ugly things had to be done. He limited his attacks to Confederate soldiers until the local population began to sabotage his efforts, at which point, without hesitation, he burnt local homes, measure for measure. Inside the city, he endeavored to destroy any and all infrastructure that would aid the enemy, since Confederate weapons, clothing, and food were nearly all warehoused in this city. He personally supervised the destruction of the railroads that would otherwise keep supplies moving between Atlanta and the field, and cut his own supply line, a gutsy move unheard of previously. He soon learned not to trust Cavalry to destroy the railroads, because they'd just tear the tracks off, and someone else would put them back on. Sherman supervised the heating of the rails till they were white-hot and pliable, and created a tool for bending them around the trunks of trees, or into knots when no trees were nearby, so that no one would ever use them again.

Sherman has an unfairly tainted reputation regarding the Black people of the South, perhaps because he discouraged newly-freed families from following his train. The issue was a logistical one he had enough food for his soldiers, thanks to their resourcefulness in foraging, and he welcomed single Black men to assist in noncombatant ways in order to free up his soldiers. (He was not willing to arm his Black enlistees, and was pleasantly surprised when he found others had successfully done so later). But when someone from Washington came down and privately interviewed former slaves to see who they trusted and who they didn't, they gave their unilateral trust to Sherman. This is the proof for me, that although he was later unsure they were ready for the ballot before they became literate (with which I disagreed), he treated them with kindness and they revered him, viewing him alongside President Lincoln, as their liberator.

Grant was so eager to have Sherman back to help him fight Lee across the Potomac that he nearly boarded him and all his men onto ships once he reached the sea. Sherman talked him out of it, saying that he must go THROUGH the Carolinas in order for those insulated in die-hard South Carolina to see the might of the American army, and understand that resistance truly was futile. The newspapers of the South printed lies, saying that the South was winning its quest for separation, and Sherman felt that personal experience was the only thing that would really convince those who had first seceded, who had fired on Fort Sumter, and perhaps since they started all this, it was appropriate that they not be spared the privations that the people of Georgia, who were much less enthusiastic toward the Confederacy, had experienced.

Grant was smart enough to listen to him, and let him follow what he considered the best course of action. Lincoln was a true friend and leader who knew when to stop delegating. Again and again, lies came to him about Grant, that he was drinking again, etc. and should be removed, and Lincoln, who was well and truly done with the likes of McClellan, Pope, and Burnside, said, "I can't spare this man. He fights". I mention this, not as a digression but because Grant and Sherman were hand in glove. This partnership, this blending of mind and purpose, is part of what made victory possible.

Sherman and his men fought their way through woods, swamps, over quicksand, through areas previously considered impenetrable, and unlike many high-ranking officers, he gave himself no perks that he did not share with his men, apart from the rare invitation to dinner with a Union family. At the very end of his memoir, he devotes perhaps 20 or 30 pages to what constitutes effective leadership, and one thing I was struck by is that he believes a commanding officer should ride up front, because the men leading it have pride in the fact that they are leading, and that disorder and bad behaviors are limited to the rear. In short, he is safer with the men in front, and he has to see what is ahead to draw the correct conclusions about what should be done next. He sleeps on the ground, just like his men. At one moving point, he and his men sought refuge from a storm by sleeping in a church, and some of the soldiers found carpets and made him a little bed up by the altar. Sherman told them to give that bed to their division leader, because he was used to sleeping hard. "Then I fell down on a pew and was instantly asleep".

After Lincoln's assassination by a Confederate sympathizer, and attempts upon the lives of Seward, Secretary of War, and others, newly-minted President Johnson suddenly knocked Sherman's legs from beneath him. Without a hint or clue as to why, Sherman was suddenly vilified, and the orders to his subordinates NOT TO OBEY HIM were released to the press. Such lack of appreciation for a man who gave his all to the Union took my breath away. Apparently Secretary of War Stanton, who replaced Steward once he was injured, was filled with paranoia and behaved both irrationally and unfairly. This was primarily his doing, and Sherman knew it. He reported to Grant, and ONLY to Grant.

Upon reaching Washington DC, each leading general paraded with his army before a massive crowd, and Sherman had his rightful place on the review stand once he reached it. He passed down the line, shaking hands along the line of others who'd been seated there. until he reached Secretary Stanton. At this point, he states that he publicly brushed past the outstretched hand offered him, thus returning the public insult that had been dealt him in the press. He snubbed the guy in as public a manner as possible, and I once again wanted to cheer. Well done.

"War is war, and not popularity seeking", he responded to someone who questioned his destruction of Georgia, and the sieges that left rebel cities on the brink of starvation. And he was right. It can't be over until someone has the courage to wage real war. His frankness and his affection for his troops, even though he knew some of them would fall, or maybe even more so because of it, was deeply moving, and I came away feeling that I had read one of the best memoirs ever.

One more thing I'd add, for those who get the edition that I read: if you flip to the last page, it says 490. Hmmmm. Yes, but no. This was originally a two volume set. It's less expensive to buy just one book, but it remains two volumes under one cover. Once you reach the FIRST page 409, There is a page that says VOLUME II and then you start on page 1 again, so that you are actually reading over 800 pages.

Put together with Foote's less-apt and rabidly pro-Confederate trilogy, this was a meal, yet I don't regret reading them together, since it provided two perspectives (and I am finishing Burke Davis's book on Sherman's march to the sea, a smaller volume with a third perspective that is closer to Sherman's own).

But if you ask me who I believe when facts collide: I believe Sherman. . más


I continued at the Academy in Lancaster, which was the best in the place indeed, as good a school as any in Ohio. We studied all the common branches of knowledge, including Latin, Greek, and French. At first the school was kept by Mr. Parsons he was succeeded by Mr. Brown, and he by two brothers, Samuel and Mark How. These were all excellent teachers, and we made good progress, first at the old academy and afterward at a new school-house, built by Samuel How, in the orchard of Hugh Boyle, Esq.

Time passed with us as with boys generally. Mr. Ewing was in the United States Senate, and I was notified to prep


The Memoirs of General William T. Sherman By Himself

Sherman, William T.

Published by Indianna University Press, Bloomington, Indianna, 1957

Used - Hardcover
Condition: Near Fine

Hard Cover. Condition: Near Fine. Dust Jacket Condition: Very Good. First Edition, First Printing. Usual wear along the edges of the dust jacket. Introduction by B. H. Liddell Hart, from the Civil War Centennial Series, two volumes, complete in one volune. This book is from the estate of Twin Cities collector, Grace Reiter it is unmarked except for her signature.


Sherman’s Memoirs Inspire Davis’ “Calamity”

After sitting down to read the memoirs of Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman one year ago, Daniel T. Davis was sparked by the idea to write about the battles of Averasboro and Bentonville—two battles in which the general led the Union Army to victory.

The battles of Averasboro and Bentonville were fought on Mar. 16 and Mar. 19-21, 1865, respectively, in central North Carolina. Although eventually won by the Union Army, Sherman was not in favor of sending his depleted armies into another bloody fight.

“[I]n the uncertainty of General (Joseph) Johnston’s strength,” Sherman said in his Memoirs, “I did not feel disposed to invite a general battle, for we had been out from Savannah since the latter part of January, and our wagon-trains contained but little food.”

As a result, Confederate forces nearly destroyed an isolated portion of the Federal Army before Sherman salvaged the situation.

Sherman’s perseverance caught Davis’ attention.

“I was reading up on Sherman in general,” Davis said. “I was picking stuff up wherever I could and those two battles jumped out to me. The Carolina campaign is relatively forgotten there’s not a whole lot out there on Averasboro and Bentonville.”

Davis’ curiosity has developed into the book, Calamity in Carolina: The Battles of Averasboro and Bentonville, part of the Emerging Civil War Series and co-authored by Phillip S. Greenwalt. The two writers have collaborated previously with their books Hurricane from the Heavens: The Battle of Cold Harbor y Bloody Autumn: The Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864 and their Hallowed Ground article “A Scary Sequel: The Battle and Ramifications of Brawner’s Farm at Second Manassas.”

Throughout their years writing together, Davis and Greenwalt have formed a bond not only as workers, but also as friends.

“(Phill’s) been great,” Davis said. “When we first met back in the summer of 2006, I was working at Fredericksburg and we started hanging out and became friends. When Emerging Civil War started, I told (editor-in-chief) Chris Mackowski that we should bring Phill on and we went from there. It’s really a personal and a professional relationship.

Having graduated from Longwood University in 2005 with a degree in Public History, Davis worked as a historian at Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park and Appomattox Courthouse National Historic Site, until he began writing for Emerging Civil War in 2011.

Calamity in Carolina will be Davis’ third book chronicling the War of the Rebellion, all of which Davis shares authorship with Greenwalt. But the Civil War is more than a recent hobby for Davis it is a part of his life.

“The Civil War hits close to home,” Davis said. “I’m originally from Fredericksburg—there’s a lot of Civil War history in Fredericksburg. There’s a lot of Civil War history in Virginia. If you start in Fredericksburg, you can expand out in all directions. I started doing this with my dad when I was very young. We would go to Fredericksburg battlefield, we went to Chancellorsville and Spotsylvania, and it stuck.”

The battles of Averasboro and Bentonville may not appear in any eighth grader’s textbook, but Davis wants to educate readers on not only the battles of political importance, but also about the battles that have had a cultural impact on every American citizen who cherish his or her country’s history.

“(The battles) fit in the realm of culture,” Davis said. “But not so much the nineteenth century, but more the twentieth and twenty-first century. Averasboro and Bentonville are two extremely well preserved battlefield sites.”

Davis stated that there is good reason why these two battles have fallen into a historical limbo.

“Appomattox happens, and because the principle Confederate army had surrendered in Virginia, Bentonville becomes an afterthought for these men,” Davis said.

With the Appomattox victory, the Union army finally saw a chance for the war to end, but Johnston’s army still needed to be tracked down.

But while many historic sites have been the victims of modernization (including Fredericksburg), both Averasboro and Bentonville today are still reflective of the era in which the battles were fought.

“We don’t see that very often,” Davis said. “The landscape is relatively unchanged, there are private houses on the battlefield, but development has not encroached upon them, and that’s really impressive. That’s something we’re not used to—going to a battlefield that is, for the most part, pristine.”

The battlefields are two of the last windows into the world of the Civil War.

Calamity, says Davis, will be a useful tool for people looking through that window.

“We do the battles justice,” Davis said. “We bring those battles back into the spotlight of the Civil War community.”


Contenido

The City of Benicia was founded on May 19, 1847, by Dr. Robert Semple, [11] Thomas O. Larkin, and Comandante General byMariano Guadalupe Vallejo, on land sold to them by General Vallejo in December 1846. It was named for the General's wife, Francisca Benicia Carillo de Vallejo, a member of the Carrillo family of California, a prominent Californio dynasty. The General intended that the city be named "Francisca" after his wife, but this name was dropped when the former city of "Yerba Buena" changed its name to "San Francisco," so her second given name was used instead. In his memoirs, William Tecumseh Sherman contended that Benicia was "the best natural site for a commercial city" in the region. [12]

In February 1848, first word of gold found at Sutter's Mill was leaked at a Benicia Tavern, thus starting the California Gold Rush. [13] [14] [15] Benicia became a way station on the way to the Sierras. [dieciséis]

Benicia was the third site selected to serve as the California state capital, after San Jose and nearby Vallejo, and its newly constructed city hall was California's capitol from February 11, 1853, to February 25, 1854. Soon after, the legislature was moved to the courthouse in Sacramento, which has remained the state capital ever since. The restored capitol is part of the Benicia Capitol State Historic Park, and is the only building remaining of the state's pre-Sacramento capitols.

Benicia was also the county seat of Solano County until 1858, when that was moved to Fairfield.

The original campus of Mills College was founded in Benicia in 1852 as the Young Ladies Seminary, and was the first women's college west of the Rocky Mountains. Before moving to Oakland in 1871, it was located on West I Street, just north of First Street.

On June 5, 1889, the legendary prize fight between James J. Corbett and Joe Choynski was held on a barge off the coast of Benicia. The match lasted 28 rounds, and is now commemorated by a plaque near Southampton Bay.

From 1860 to 1861, Benicia was indirectly involved in the Pony Express. When riders missed their connection with a steamer in Sacramento, they would continue on to Benicia and cross over to Martinez via the ferry. [17] One of the earliest companies in California, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, established a major shipyard in Benicia in the 19th century. The prolific shipbuilder Matthew Turner formed the Matthew Turner Shipyard at Benicia in 1883. Benicia became an important wheat storage and shipping site. It was also the site of the United States Army's Benicia Arsenal.

On December 1, 1879, the Central Pacific Railroad rerouted the Sacramento-Oakland portion of its transcontinental line to Benicia and established a major railroad ferry across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa. The world's largest ferry, the Solano, later joined by the even larger Contra Costa, carried entire trains across the Carquinez Strait from Benicia to Port Costa, from whence they continued on to the Oakland Pier. [18]

In 1901, the world's first long-distance powerline crossing over Carquinez Strait was built. After California's wheat output dropped in the early 20th century and especially after the Southern Pacific (which took over the operations of the Central Pacific) opened a railroad bridge to Martinez on October 15, 1930, eliminating the ferry crossing and the Benicia station, Benicia declined until the economic boom of World War II, in which the population doubled to about 7,000 residents.

A major fire on March 22, 1945, destroyed a half-block of businesses, including the nearly-century-old “old brewery”, and the Solano Hotel, with flames briefly threatening the old state capitol, now a historical landmark. A roof fire was quickly extinguished and the structure was not badly damaged. Losses were estimated at $125,000. [19]

Two developments in the early 1960s would completely change Benicia: The closing of the Benicia Arsenal in 1960–64, and the completion of the Benicia–Martinez Bridge in 1962. The closing of the Arsenal removed Benicia's traditional economic base, but allowed city leaders to create an industrial park on Arsenal land which eventually provided more revenue for the city than the Army had. The completion of the Benicia-Martinez Bridge made it possible for the city to become a suburb of San Francisco and Oakland, and suburban development in the Benicia hills began in the late 1960s.

On December 20, 1968, near the Benicia water pumping station on Lake Herman Road, the Zodiac Killer made his debut by killing Vallejo natives David Faraday and Betty Lou Jensen as they rested or "necked" in Faraday's car. Near the same area on July 4 of the following year, the killer struck again, killing Darlene Elizabeth Ferrin and injuring Michael Mageau at the Blue Rock Springs Park in Vallejo, immediately next to Benicia.

Northeast of the town's residential areas an oil refinery was built and completed in 1969 by Humble Oil (later Exxon Corporation). The refinery was later bought by Valero Energy Corporation, a San Antonio-based oil company, in 2000.

Between 1970 and 1995, the population of Benicia grew steadily at a rate of about 1,000 people per year, and the city changed from a poor, blue-collar town of 7,000 to a white-collar bedroom suburb of 27,000.

Farmers' Market Edit

There is a farmers' market along First Street on Thursday evenings during the summer months April through October. According to the Benicia Main Street commerce organization, this tradition began in 1992.

Arts Benicia Edit

Arts Benicia is a community-based non-profit organization whose mission is to stimulate, educate, and nurture cultural life in Benicia primarily through the visual arts. They provide exhibitions, educational programs, and classes that support artists and engage the broader community.

The organization offers dynamic year-round art exhibitions and public art openings, the Benicia Artists Open Studios event in the spring, the Annual Benefit Art Auction in the fall, various special projects, and quarterly art classes for adults and kids. It is located in the Benicia Arsenal at 991 Tyler Street, Suite 114. Gallery hours are Thursday-Sunday, 12:00-5:00 PM during exhibitions gallery admission is free to the public. [20]

Arts in the Park Edit

Arts in the Park is an annual summer art celebration held in Benicia City Park. [21]

Benicia Peddler's Fair Edit

One of the largest street fairs in Northern California, this outdoor event began in 1963 with a few collectable and antique stores displaying their items on tables outside St. Paul's Church. Today, over 300 antique and collectable dealers as well as other vendors display their wares in booths that span approximately 11 blocks of First Street. Unverified sources cite attendance in 2006 at approximately 20,000. This event, typically on a Saturday in August, is sponsored by St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Benicia. [22]

Picnic in the Park & Fireworks Edit

On July 4, there is a large community picnic at Benicia's City Park traditionally starting at noon. Shortly after dark (approximately 9pm), there is a fireworks display that originates at the foot of First Street.

Torchlight Parade Edit

Traditionally held on the July 3, Benicia's Fourth of July parade stretches all the way down First Street and typically includes music, dancing, floats, horses, clowns, and live entertainment.

Sailing Edit

Benicia is an active sailing community. In addition to individual sailing out of the Benicia Marina, there are several organized events and competitions. During the summer months, there is a yacht racing competition on Thursday evenings sponsored by the Benicia Yacht Club. The Yacht Club co-sponsors the annual Jazz Cup regatta with the South Beach Yacht Club, and also sponsors a Youth Sailing Program that offers extensive training.

The Holy Ghost Parade Edit

On the fourth Sunday in July, the Portuguese community in Benicia celebrates the feast of the Holy Ghost, continuing a devotion established by the Queen St. Isabel of Portugal, who was noted for her care for the poor. The festival starts with a parade to St. Dominic's Church followed by Mass, followed by an auction and a dance. The Holy Ghost Parade celebrated 100 years in Benicia in 2007. [23]

Tree City Edit

Benicia is a Tree City USA and holds an annual Arbor Day event. [24] The Benicia Tree Foundation [25] hosts regular events that involve community members in tree-planting activities.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.7 square miles (41 km 2 ), of which 12.9 square miles (33 km 2 ) are land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km 2 ) (17.75%) are water. Benicia is located on the north side of the Carquinez Strait.

Historical population
Census Pop.
18801,794
18902,361 31.6%
19002,751 16.5%
19102,360 −14.2%
19202,693 14.1%
19302,913 8.2%
19402,419 −17.0%
19507,284 201.1%
19606,070 −16.7%
19707,349 21.1%
198015,376 109.2%
199024,437 58.9%
200026,865 9.9%
201026,997 0.5%
2019 (est.)28,240 [8] 4.6%
U.S. Decennial Census [26]

2010 Edit

The 2010 United States Census [27] reported that Benicia had a population of 26,997. The population density was 1,717.4 people per square mile (663.1/km 2 ). The racial makeup of Benicia was 19,568 (72.5%) White, 1,510 (5.6%) African American, 135 (0.5%) Native American, 2,989 (11.1%) Asian, 102 (0.4%) Pacific Islander, 895 (3.3%) from other races, and 1,798 (6.7%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,248 persons (12.0%).

The Census reported that 99.9% of the population lived in households and 0.1% lived in non-institutionalized group quarters.

There were 10,686 households, out of which 3,617 (33.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 5,668 (53.0%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,271 (11.9%) had a female householder with no husband present, 480 (4.5%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 584 (5.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 102 (1.0%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,628 households (24.6%) were made up of individuals, and 893 (8.4%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52. There were 7,419 families (69.4% of all households) the average family size was 3.02.

The population was spread out, with 6,317 people (23.4%) under the age of 18, 1,923 people (7.1%) aged 18 to 24, 6,087 people (22.5%) aged 25 to 44, 9,303 people (34.5%) aged 45 to 64, and 3,367 people (12.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.9 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.

There were 11,306 housing units at an average density of 719.2 per square mile (277.7/km 2 ), of which 70.5% were owner-occupied and 29.5% were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0% the rental vacancy rate was 6.1%. 72.2% of the population lived in owner-occupied housing units and 27.7% lived in rental housing units.

2000 Edit

As of the census [28] of 2000, there were 26,865 people, 10,328 households, and 7,239 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,082.6 people per square mile (804.1/km 2 ). There were 10,547 housing units at an average density of 817.6 per square mile (315.7/km 2 ). The racial makeup of the city was 78.89% White, 9.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino, 7.56% Asian, 4.82% Black or African American, 0.60% Native American, 0.29% Pacific Islander, 2.65% from other races, and 5.18% from two or more races.

There were 10,328 households, out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.9% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 27.1% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $67,617, and the median income for a family was $77,974 (these figures had risen to $84,025 and $102,889 respectively as of a 2007 estimate [29] ). Males had a median income of $59,628 versus $39,893 for females. The per capita income for the city was $31,226. About 3.1% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.4% of those under age 18 and 2.9% of those age 65 or over.

Top employers Edit

According to the city's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [30] the top employers in the city are:


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