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Muere Truman Capote, autor de "In Cold Blood"

Muere Truman Capote, autor de


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Truman Capote, el autor de la novela pionera sobre crímenes reales En sangre fria, muere a los 59 años en Los Ángeles.

En sangre fria contó la historia del asesinato en 1959 de la familia Clutter en Holcomb, Kansas. Richard Hickock y Perry Smith, dos en libertad condicional de la Penitenciaría del Estado de Kansas, decidieron robar a Herbert Clutter, un granjero exitoso, después de escuchar el rumor de que tenía una caja fuerte con dinero en efectivo en su casa. Los dos hombres llegaron a la casa de campo de Clutter el 15 de noviembre de 1959. Después de descubrir que no había caja fuerte, degollaron a Herbert Clutter y le dispararon en la cabeza. Perry Smith luego disparó contra la esposa de Clutter, Bonnie, y sus dos hijos adolescentes, Nancy y Kenyon. Hickock y Smith fueron capturados por la policía más de un mes después en Las Vegas. En el juicio, alegaron locura temporal, pero fueron declarados culpables y condenados a muerte. Ambos hombres murieron ahorcados el 14 de abril de 1965 en la Penitenciaría Estatal de Kansas en Lansing.

Después de leer un artículo sobre los asesinatos de Clutter, Truman Capote se interesó en el caso y viajó a Kansas con su amigo de la infancia Harper Lee, quien luego escribió Matar a un ruiseñor. Capote, una figura extravagante que alcanzó la fama literaria por primera vez a los 23 años con su novela. Otras voces, otras salas y también escribió la novela de 1958 "Breakfast at Tiffany's", investigó minuciosamente el caso con la ayuda de Lee. Capote realizó una serie de entrevistas en prisión con los asesinos que le permitieron meterse en sus mentes y describir eventos y conversaciones como si él hubiera estado presente.

En negrita fría fue originalmente serializado en El neoyorquino y luego se publicó en forma de libro en 1965. Capote la denominó “novela de no ficción” y se convirtió en un éxito de ventas internacional. La celebridad de Capote se disparó, pero luego luchó contra las adicciones a las drogas y al alcohol. Murió de una enfermedad hepática en Los Ángeles en la casa de Joanna Carson, la cuarta esposa del presentador de un programa de entrevistas Johnny Carson.

En 1967, una versión cinematográfica de En sangre fria fue estrenada, protagonizada por Robert Blake como Perry Smith. En 2005, una película titulada Capota contó la historia de la investigación del autor sobre los asesinatos de Clutter y su fascinación por el crimen.


Vida temprana (1924-1943)

Truman Capote nació como Truman Streckfus Persons en Nueva Orleans, Louisiana, el 30 de septiembre de 1924. Su padre era Archulus Persons, un vendedor de una familia muy respetada de Alabama. Su madre era Lillie Mae Faulk, una joven de 16 años de Monroeville, Alabama, que se había casado con Persons pensando que él era su boleto para salir de las zonas rurales de Alabama, pero luego se dio cuenta de que era pura charla y nada de sustancia. Faulk se matriculó en la escuela de negocios y regresó a la casa familiar para vivir con su familia extendida, pero pronto se dio cuenta de que estaba embarazada. Ambos padres fueron negligentes: las personas hicieron algunos esfuerzos empresariales cuestionables, incluido el intento de administrar un artista de espectáculos secundarios conocido como Great Pasha, mientras Lillie Mae se embarcaba en una serie de aventuras amorosas. En el verano de 1930, Lillie Mae dejó a la familia para intentar triunfar en la ciudad de Nueva York, dejando a su hijo con parientes en Monroeville, Alabama.

El joven Truman pasó los dos años siguientes con las tres hermanas Faulk: Jennie, Callie y Nanny Rumbley, todas las cuales fueron la inspiración para los personajes de sus obras. Su vecina en ese momento era la marimacho Nelle Harper Lee, la posible autora de Matar a un ruiseñor, que protegió a Truman de los matones. En 1932, Lillie Mae envió a buscar a su hijo. Se había casado con el corredor cubano de Wall Street Joe Capote y cambió su nombre a Nina Capote. Su nuevo esposo adoptó al niño y lo rebautizó como Truman García Capote.

Lillie Mae despreciaba el afeminamiento de su hijo y desconfiaba de tener otros hijos con Joe Capote por temor a que resultaran como Truman. Temiendo que fuera homosexual, lo envió a psiquiatras y luego lo envió a una academia militar en 1936. Allí, Truman sufrió abusos sexuales por parte de los otros cadetes, y al año siguiente regresó a la ciudad de Nueva York para estudiar en Trinity, un centro de élite privado. escuela en el Upper West Side. Lillie Mae también encontró un médico que le administraría inyecciones de hormonas masculinas a su hijo.

La familia se mudó a Greenwich, Connecticut, en 1939. En Greenwich High School, encontró un mentor en su maestro de inglés, quien lo animó a escribir. No se graduó en 1942, y cuando los Capote se mudaron a un apartamento en Park Avenue, se inscribió en la escuela Franklin para retomar su último año. En Franklin, se hizo amigo de Carol Marcus, Oona O’Neill (futura esposa de Charlie Chaplin e hija del dramaturgo Eugene O’Neill) y la heredera Gloria Vanderbilt, todos disfrutaron de la glamorosa vida nocturna de Nueva York.


Reunión, 27 de febrero de 2020

Había nieve en el suelo, pero Spring estaba en el aire cuando cinco de nosotros nos reunimos en la Biblioteca Conmemorativa de Kurt Vonnegut para hablar sobre la novela de no ficción de 1966 de Truman Capote "A sangre fría". Los habituales Bill Briscoe, John Sturman, John Hawn y Dave Young dieron la bienvenida a un nuevo miembro, Susie Windell. Sturman, bien preparado como de costumbre, nos guió a través de este trabajo que complementó con copiosos folletos.

Mis largas vacaciones de invierno aparentemente han confundido mi cerebro, ya que mis notas de nuestra discusión son un desastre. Parece que realmente no pasamos mucho tiempo hablando de ese encantador dúo de Dick y Perry y su espantoso crimen. Estábamos más interesados ​​en las curiosas vidas del autor, Truman Capote, y su investigador, Harper Lee, que ganó un Pulitzer por "Matar a un ruiseñor". Truman estaba enojado porque nunca recibió un Pulitzer a pesar de que se hizo muy rico y estableció un nuevo estándar para la novela policíaca. Corría el rumor de que podría haber comenzado diciendo que era el verdadero autor de "Mockingbird". Y, por supuesto, hablamos de la turbulenta década de 1960 en la que vivimos la mayoría de nosotros. El asesinato de JFK y otras atrocidades junto con informes más realistas expusieron las diversas enfermedades de nuestra sociedad y acabó con la cómoda visión de Norman Rockwell de Estados Unidos con la que crecimos.

No está claro cuánto tiempo, si es que hubo alguno, pasaron juntos Tru y KV. Ambos eran parte de una colonia de escritores (incluidos George Plimpton, E. L. Doctorow y otros) que periódicamente escapaba de Manhattan hacia la comunidad de Hampton de Sagaponack, donde los alquileres en los años 70 eran muy baratos. El KV alto y desgarbado, dos años mayor que Tru, recuerda haber visto al autor de 5'4 ”dando vueltas por Long Island en un roadster con un volante sobre el que apenas podía ver. Ambos tenían afición por el alcohol y es posible que hayan pasado el rato juntos en ese famoso bar, cuyo nombre olvido, en Main Sagg. En algún momento, después de haber peleado con muchos amigos y partidarios, Tru se fue de Nueva York a la costa oeste, donde murió en 1984. Tru era rico y famoso mucho antes que Vonnegut y murió 23 años antes que él después de una vida de disipación.

"A sangre fría" fue la última novela de Tru, aunque continuó escribiendo memorias y piezas cortas que le valieron más desprecio que dinero. Pero ya era rico de "Blood", lo que le valió alrededor de 6 millones en la moneda de la época. Aceptó el proyecto en un encargo de The New Yorker Magazine y trabajó en él durante seis años. La publicación se retrasó hasta la merecida ejecución de los dos delincuentes. Se dijo que Tru se negó a unirse a los esfuerzos para retrasar la ejecución porque quería su dinero, pero esto es solo una especulación.

Recuerdo que me enviaron a Kansas City, MO en un detalle de 30 días en algún momento de la década de 1980. Un día crucé el río hacia Olathe, KS y me sorprendió ver este letrero en la interestatal: "Colorado Border 400 Miles". Instantáneamente me llené de una sensación de vacío. Esta es la ruta que nuestro dúo equivocado debe haber tomado cuando salieron de la prisión estatal de Kansas río arriba por el río Missouri hacia la granja Clutter en el lejano oeste de Kansas [corregido & # 8211 DEY] allá por 1959.

Tru llegó a la granja Clutter poco después de los asesinatos. Lo acompañó su asistente de investigación Harper Lee (su vecino de la infancia en Monroeville, Alabama), quien durante seis años acumuló unas 8,000 páginas de notas luego de entrevistas con los directores y los lugareños y revisando meticulosamente las pruebas y los datos del juicio. A pesar de toda la atención al detalle, Tru manipuló los hechos para adaptarlos a su narrativa. La gente tardó un tiempo en darse cuenta de que el “nuevo periodismo” tal como se expone en la “novela de no ficción” se tomaba libertades con la verdad en busca de una realidad alternativa.

El libro recibió muchos elogios de la crítica, pero Stanley Kaufmann escribió una crítica bastante negativa para el New York Times. Algunos notaron que el libro tardó demasiado en llegar a la línea de meta y parecía perder fuerza hacia el final. Tru parecía haberse unido al más psicópata y violento Perry Smith. Ambos experimentaron mucho trauma y abandono en su infancia. Tru usó la metáfora de una casa para su crianza y notó que mientras él salía por la puerta principal, Perry salió por la puerta trasera. Perry mojaba la cama y Dick sufrió lesiones en la cabeza y pudo haber sufrido trastorno de estrés postraumático. Los tres parecían haber tenido vidas sexuales confusas, pero Tru nunca se metió en eso. ¡Qué diablos, eran los sesenta! A continuación se copia un resumen de Wikipedia.

Después de 90 minutos de palabrería, el grupo calificó esta obra maestra como un "8" en la escala de diez puntos de Vonnegut, increíblemente precisa. Luego nos retiramos a una nueva hamburguesería "Baby's" en 2147 N. Talbott Street para una mayor discusión. Nuestra próxima reunión será el 26 de marzo de 2020 cuando John Hawn nos ayudará a comprender el intento de KV de explicar el mundo del expresionismo abstracto en su 1987 novela "Blue Beard". Únase a nosotros a las 11:00 AM en la Biblioteca KV Memorial para lo que promete ser una discusión animada.

Todavía estamos tratando de finalizar nuestro programa de lectura para 2020. Debido a nuestra membresía cada vez menor, varios espacios todavía están abiertos y estamos buscando voluntarios.

.A sangre fría: un relato verdadero de un asesinato múltiple y sus consecuencias

En sangre fria es una novela de no ficción [1] del autor estadounidense Truman Capote, publicada por primera vez en 1966 y que detalla los asesinatos en 1959 de cuatro miembros de la familia Herbert Clutter en la pequeña comunidad agrícola de Holcomb, Kansas.

Capote se enteró del cuádruple asesinato antes de que los asesinos fueran capturados y viajó a Kansas para escribir sobre el crimen. Lo acompañó su amigo de la infancia y compañero autor Harper Lee, y entrevistaron a los residentes e investigadores asignados al caso y tomaron miles de páginas de notas. Los asesinos Richard Hickock y Perry Smith fueron arrestados seis semanas después de los asesinatos y luego ejecutados por el estado de Kansas. Capote finalmente pasó seis años trabajando en el libro.

En sangre fria fue un éxito instantáneo y es el segundo libro sobre crímenes verdaderos más vendido en la historia, detrás de Vincent Bugliosi & # 8216s Helter Skelter (1974) sobre los asesinatos de Charles Manson. [2] Algunos críticos consideran que la obra de Capote & # 8217 es la novela original de no ficción, aunque otros escritores ya habían explorado el género, como Rodolfo Walsh en Operación Masacre (1957). [3][4] En sangre fria ha sido alabado por su prosa elocuente, extenso detalle y triple narrativa que describe la vida de los asesinos, las víctimas y otros miembros de la comunidad rural en secuencias alternas. Se presta especial atención a las psicologías y antecedentes de Hickock y Smith, al igual que la compleja relación de la pareja durante y después de los asesinatos. En sangre fria es considerado por los críticos como un trabajo pionero en el género del crimen verdadero, aunque Capote estaba decepcionado de que el libro no ganara el Premio Pulitzer. [5] Partes del libro difieren de los hechos reales, incluidos detalles importantes. [6]

Herbert & # 8220Herb & # 8221 Clutter era un próspero agricultor en el oeste de Kansas. Empleó hasta 18 peones, quienes lo admiraban y respetaban por su trato justo y buenos salarios. Sus dos hijas mayores, Eveanna y Beverly, se habían mudado y habían comenzado su vida adulta; sus dos hijos menores, Nancy, de 16 años, y Kenyon, de 15, estaban en la escuela secundaria. Según los informes, la esposa de Clutter, Bonnie, había sido incapacitada por depresión clínica y dolencias físicas desde el nacimiento de sus hijos, aunque esto fue luego discutido. [ cita necesaria ]

Dos ex convictos recientemente liberados en libertad condicional de la Penitenciaría del Estado de Kansas, Richard Eugene & # 8220Dick & # 8221 Hickock & # 8221 Edward Smith, robaron y asesinaron a Herb, Bonnie, Nancy y Kenyon en las primeras horas de la mañana del 15 de noviembre de 1959. Un ex compañero de celda de Hickock & # 8217s, Floyd Wells, había trabajado para Herb Clutter y le dijo a Hickock que Clutter guardaba grandes cantidades de dinero en efectivo en una caja fuerte. Hickock pronto ideó la idea de robar la caja fuerte y comenzar una nueva vida en México. Según Capote, Hickock describió su plan como & # 8220 una cincha, la puntuación perfecta & # 8221. Hickock luego se puso en contacto con Smith, otro ex compañero de celda, para cometer el robo con él. [7] De hecho, Herb Clutter no tenía caja fuerte y tramitaba todos sus negocios con cheque. [ cita necesaria ]

Después de conducir más de 400 millas a través del estado de Kansas en la noche del 14 de noviembre, Hickock y Smith llegaron a Holcomb, localizaron la casa de Clutter y entraron por una puerta sin llave mientras la familia dormía. Al despertar a los Clutter y descubrir que no había caja fuerte, ataron y amordazaron a la familia y continuaron buscando dinero, pero encontraron poco de valor en la casa. Aún decididos a no dejar testigos, la pareja debatió brevemente qué hacer Smith, notoriamente inestable y propenso a actos violentos en ataques de rabia, cortó la garganta de Herb Clutter y luego le disparó en la cabeza. Capote escribe que Smith relató más tarde: & # 8220 No quería & # 8217t lastimar al hombre. Pensé que era un caballero muy agradable. De voz suave. Lo pensé hasta el momento en que le corté el cuello. & # 8221 [8] Kenyon, Nancy y luego la Sra. Clutter también fueron asesinados, cada uno con un solo disparo de escopeta en la cabeza. Hickock y Smith abandonaron la escena del crimen con una pequeña radio portátil, un par de binoculares y menos de 50 dólares en efectivo. [ cita necesaria ]

Smith luego afirmó en su confesión oral que Hickock asesinó a las dos mujeres. Sin embargo, cuando se le pidió que firmara su confesión, Smith se negó. Según Capote, quería aceptar la responsabilidad de los cuatro asesinatos porque, dijo, estaba & # 8220 a la madre de Dick & # 8217. & # 8221 Smith agregó, & # 8220 ella & # 8217 es una persona realmente dulce & # 8221 [9 ] Hickock siempre sostuvo que Smith cometió los cuatro asesinatos. [ cita necesaria ]

Sobre la base de una pista de Wells, quien se puso en contacto con el director de la prisión después de enterarse de los asesinatos, Hickock y Smith fueron identificados como sospechosos y arrestados en Las Vegas el 30 de diciembre de 1959. Ambos hombres finalmente confesaron después de los interrogatorios de los detectives de la Oficina de Kansas. de Investigación. Fueron llevados de regreso a Kansas, donde fueron juzgados juntos en el juzgado del condado de Finney en Garden City, Kansas, del 22 al 29 de marzo de 1960. Ambos se declararon locos temporalmente en el juicio, pero los médicos generales locales evaluaron a los acusados ​​y los declararon. cuerdo. [ cita necesaria ]

Hickock y Smith también son sospechosos de estar involucrados en los asesinatos de la familia Walker, noción que se menciona en el libro, aunque esta conexión no ha sido probada. [ cita necesaria ]

En su lugar, se negó una moción de la defensa de que Smith y Hickock se sometieran a pruebas psicológicas integrales, se nombró a tres médicos generales locales para examinarlos y determinar si estaban cuerdos en el momento del crimen. [10] Después de una breve entrevista, los médicos determinaron que los acusados ​​no estaban locos y podían ser juzgados según las reglas de M & # 8217Naghten. Los abogados defensores buscaron la opinión de un psiquiatra experimentado del hospital psiquiátrico local del estado, quien diagnosticó signos definitivos de enfermedad mental en Smith y consideró que las lesiones anteriores en la cabeza de Hickock podrían haber afectado su comportamiento. [11] Esta opinión no fue admitida en el juicio, sin embargo, porque bajo la ley de Kansas el psiquiatra sólo podía opinar sobre la cordura del acusado en el momento del crimen. [11]

El jurado deliberó durante solo 45 minutos antes de encontrar a Hickock y Smith culpables de asesinato. Sus condenas conllevaban una pena de muerte obligatoria en ese momento. [ cita necesaria ]

En la apelación, Smith y Hickock impugnaron las determinaciones de que estaban cuerdos y afirmaron que la cobertura mediática del crimen y el juicio había sesgado al jurado, [12] y que habían recibido asistencia inadecuada de sus abogados. Algunos aspectos de estas apelaciones se presentaron en tres ocasiones a la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos, que se negó a conocer el caso. [13]

Después de cinco años en el corredor de la muerte en la Penitenciaría del Estado de Kansas, Smith y Hickock fueron ejecutados en la horca el 14 de abril de 1965. Hickock fue ejecutado primero y fue declarado muerto a las 12:41 a.m. después de haber sido ahorcados durante casi 20 minutos. Smith lo siguió poco después y fue declarado muerto a la 1:19 a.m. [14]

Cobertura y debate público [editar]

Durante los primeros meses de su juicio y después, el caso de asesinato de Hickock y Smith pasó desapercibido para la mayoría de los estadounidenses. No fue hasta meses antes de sus ejecuciones que se convirtieron en "dos de los asesinos más famosos de la historia". [15] El 18 de enero de 1960, Tiempo revista publicada & # 8220Kansas: The Killers & # 8221, una historia sobre los asesinatos. [16] Inspirado por ese artículo, Truman Capote escribió, en 1965 serializado en El neoyorquino, y en 1966 publicado como una & # 8220 novela de no ficción & # 8220, titulada En sangre fria, un libro sobre crímenes reales que detalla los asesinatos y el juicio. Debido a la brutalidad y gravedad de los crímenes, el juicio se cubrió a nivel nacional e incluso recibió algo de cobertura a nivel internacional. [ cita necesaria ]

La notoriedad de los asesinatos y el juicio posterior trajeron efectos duraderos a la pequeña ciudad de Kansas, y Capote se hizo tan famoso y relacionado con los juicios que fue llamado para ayudar al Senado en el examen del caso judicial. [11] El juicio también puso en el centro de la atención nacional un debate sobre la pena de muerte y las enfermedades mentales. [15] Capote expresó que después de completar el libro y entrevistar a Hickock y Smith, se opuso a la pena de muerte. [11]

Este juicio también ha sido citado como un ejemplo de “las limitaciones de las reglas de M & # 8217Naghten (también llamadas prueba de M & # 8217Naghten). & # 8221 [15] Las reglas de M'Naghten se utilizan para determinar si un criminal estaba loco o no en el momento de su delito y, por tanto, incapaces de ser juzgados con las debidas garantías. Autores como Karl Menninger criticaron duramente la prueba M & # 8217Naghten, calificándola de absurda. Muchos "abogados, jueces y psiquiatras" han tratado de "sortear" las reglas de M & # 8217Naghten. [17] En Intención & # 8211 Ley y Sociedad, James Marshall critica además las reglas de M'Naghten, cuestionando los principios psicológicos en los que se basan las reglas. Afirmó que "las reglas de M & # 8217Naghten & # 8230 se basan en una hipótesis errónea de que el comportamiento se basa exclusivamente en la actividad y la capacidad intelectual". [18]

En 2009, 50 años después de los asesinatos de Clutter, el Correo Huffington preguntó a los ciudadanos de Kansas sobre los efectos del juicio y sus opiniones sobre el libro y las películas y series de televisión posteriores sobre los hechos. Muchos encuestados dijeron que habían comenzado a perder la confianza en los demás, “las puertas estaban cerradas. Los extraños miraban con sospecha ". Muchos todavía se sentían muy afectados y creían que Capote de alguna manera se había aprovechado de su "gran tragedia & # 8221". [19] Un artículo en Los New York Times afirma que en la pequeña comunidad de Holcomb, Kansas, & # 8220 el vecindario se evaporó. El orden natural parecía suspendido. Caos listo para precipitarse. & # 8221 [20]

Capote se interesó en los asesinatos después de leer sobre ellos en Los New York Times. [21] Trajo a su amiga de la infancia Nelle Harper Lee (quien más tarde ganaría el Premio Pulitzer de ficción por su novela Matar a un ruiseñor) para ayudar a ganar la confianza de los lugareños en Kansas.

Capote realizó una abundante investigación para el libro, y finalmente compiló 8.000 páginas de notas. [22] Su investigación también incluyó cartas del compañero del ejército de Smith & # 8217, Don Cullivan, que estuvo presente durante el juicio. [23]

Después de que los criminales fueron encontrados, juzgados y condenados, Capote realizó entrevistas personales tanto con Smith como con Hickock. Smith fascinó especialmente a Capote en el libro que se le presenta como el más sensible de los dos asesinos. El libro no se completó hasta después de la ejecución de Smith y Hickock.

Una explicación alternativa para el interés de Capote & # 8217 sostiene que El neoyorquino le presentó la historia de Clutter como una de las dos opciones para una historia, la otra era seguir a una mujer de la limpieza de Manhattan en sus rondas. Capote supuestamente eligió la historia de Clutter, creyendo que sería la tarea más fácil. [24] Más tarde, Capote escribió un artículo sobre el seguimiento de una mujer de la limpieza, que tituló & # 8220A Day & # 8217s Work & # 8221 e incluyó en su libro Música para camaleones.

En sangre fria trajo a Capote muchos elogios de la comunidad literaria. Sin embargo, los críticos han cuestionado su veracidad, argumentando que Capote cambió los hechos para adaptarlos a la historia, agregó escenas que nunca tuvieron lugar y fabricó diálogos. [6] [25] Phillip K. Tompkins señaló discrepancias fácticas en don en 1966 después de que viajó a Kansas y habló con algunas de las personas a quienes Capote había entrevistado. Josephine Meier era la esposa de la alguacil del condado de Finney, Wendle Meier, y negó haber escuchado a Smith llorar o haber tomado su mano, como lo describió Capote. En sangre fria indica que Meier y Smith se hicieron cercanos, sin embargo, ella le dijo a Tompkins que pasaba poco tiempo con Smith y que no hablaba mucho con él. Tompkins concluyó:

Capote ha logrado, en definitiva, una obra de arte. Ha contado extraordinariamente bien una historia de gran terror a su manera. Pero, a pesar de la brillantez de sus esfuerzos de auto publicidad, ha cometido un error tanto táctico como moral que lo perjudicará a corto plazo. Al insistir en que & # 8220toda palabra & # 8221 de su libro es verdadera, se ha hecho vulnerable a aquellos lectores que están dispuestos a examinar seriamente una afirmación tan amplia.

El verdadero escritor de crímenes Jack Olsen también comentó sobre las fabricaciones:

Lo reconocí como una obra de arte, pero reconozco la falsedad cuando la veo…. Capote fabricó por completo citas y escenas completas…. El libro ganó algo así como $ 6 millones en dinero de la década de 1960, y nadie quería discutir nada malo con un generador de dinero como ese en el negocio editorial.

Sus críticas fueron citadas en don, a lo que Capote respondió, & # 8220Jack Olsen simplemente está celoso. & # 8221 [26]

Eso era cierto, por supuesto…. Estaba celoso, ¿todo ese dinero? Harper & amp Row me habían asignado el caso Clutter hasta que descubrimos que Capote y su primo [sic] Harper Lee ya había estado en el caso en Dodge City durante seis meses…. Ese libro hizo dos cosas. Hizo del crimen verdadero un género comercial interesante y exitoso, pero también comenzó el proceso de derribarlo. Hice sonar el silbato a mi manera débil. En ese momento sólo publiqué un par de libros, pero como era un libro tan magníficamente escrito, nadie quería saber nada de él. [26]

El fiscal en el caso era Duane West, y afirma que la historia carece de veracidad porque Capote no acertó al verdadero héroe. Richard Rohlader tomó la foto que muestra que dos culpables estaban involucrados, y West sugiere que Rohlader era el que merecía los mayores elogios. West cree que sin esa imagen, el crimen podría no haberse resuelto. West había sido amigo de Capote & # 8217 durante un tiempo durante la redacción del libro, incluso siendo invitado de Capote & # 8217 en la ciudad de Nueva York durante ¡Hola muñequita! y conocer a Carol Channing después del espectáculo. Su relación se agrió cuando el editor de Capote intentó que West firmara un acuerdo de no competencia para evitar que escribiera su propio libro sobre los asesinatos.

Alvin Dewey fue el investigador principal retratado en En sangre fria, y dijo que la escena en la que visita las tumbas de Clutters fue invención de Capote. Otros residentes de Kansas a quienes Capote entrevistó han afirmado que ellos o sus familiares fueron mal descritos o citados incorrectamente. [27] Dewey dijo que el resto del libro era fáctico exacto, pero más evidencia indica que no es tan & # 8220 impecablemente fáctico & # 8221 como Capote siempre había afirmado que era. El libro describe a Dewey como el brillante investigador que resuelve el caso del asesinato de Clutter, pero los archivos recuperados de la Oficina de Investigaciones de Kansas muestran que Floyd Wells se presentó para nombrar a Hickock y Smith como posibles sospechosos, pero Dewey no actuó de inmediato sobre la información. como lo retrata el libro, porque todavía mantenía su creencia de que los asesinatos fueron cometidos por lugareños que & # 8220 tenían rencor contra Herb Clutter & # 8221. [6]

Ronald Nye es el hijo del Director de la Oficina de Investigaciones de Kansas, Harold R. Nye, y colaboró ​​con el autor Gary McAvoy en la divulgación de partes de los cuadernos de investigación personales de su padre para desafiar la veracidad de En sangre fria. Su libro Y cada palabra es verdad [28] expone hechos previamente desconocidos de la investigación, lo que sugiere que la muerte de Herbert Clutter pudo haber sido un complot de asesinato por encargo.

En sangre fria se publicó por primera vez como una serie de cuatro partes en El neoyorquino, comenzando con el número del 25 de septiembre de 1965. La pieza fue una sensación inmediata, particularmente en Kansas, donde el número habitual de Neoyorquino las copias se agotaron inmediatamente. En sangre fria fue publicado por primera vez en forma de libro por Random House el 17 de enero de 1966. [29] [30] El libro, sin embargo, tenía derechos de autor en 1965, y esta fecha aparece en la portada de la mayoría de las impresiones del libro e incluso en alguna biblioteca índices como la fecha de publicación original. La Biblioteca del Congreso enumera 1966 como fecha de publicación y 1965 como fecha de copyright. [31]

La cubierta, que fue diseñada por S. Neil Fujita, muestra un alfiler con lo que originalmente parecía una gota de sangre roja en su extremo superior. Después de que Capote vio el diseño por primera vez, solicitó que la gota se hiciera de un tono más profundo de rojo para representar el paso del tiempo desde el incidente. Se agregó un borde negro a la ominosa imagen. [32]

Escribiendo para Los New York Times, Conrad Knickerbocker elogió el talento de Capote para los detalles a lo largo de la novela y declaró al libro una & # 8220 obra maestra & # 8221 - una & # 8220 agonizante, terrible, poseída, prueba de que los tiempos, tan llenos de desastres, todavía son capaces de tragedias & # 8221 . [33]

En una controvertida revisión de la novela, publicada en 1966 para La nueva república, Stanley Kauffmann, criticando el estilo de escritura de Capote a lo largo de la novela, afirma que Capote & # 8220 demuestra en casi todas las páginas que es el estilista más escandalosamente sobrevalorado de nuestro tiempo & # 8221 y luego afirma que & # 8220 la profundidad de este libro no es más profundo que su pozo de mina de detalles fácticos, su altura rara vez es más alta que la del buen periodismo y, a menudo, cae por debajo de ella. & # 8221 [34]

Tom Wolfe escribió en su ensayo & # 8220Pornoviolence & # 8220: & # 8220: & # 8220 El libro no es ni un quién lo hizo ni un será-serán-atrapados, ya que las respuestas a ambas preguntas se conocen desde el principio & # 8230 El suspenso del libro & # 8217 se basa en gran medida en una idea totalmente nueva en las historias de detectives: la promesa de detalles sangrientos y la retención de ellos hasta el final. & # 8221 [35]

En El independiente& # 8216s La serie Book of a Lifetime, la crítica Kate Colquhoun afirma que & # 8220el libro, para el cual hizo unas 8000 páginas de notas de investigación, está trazado y estructurado con un estilo tenso de escritura. Sus personajes palpitan con una vida reconocible, sus lugares son palpables. La prosa cuidadosa une al lector con el desarrollo de su historia. En pocas palabras, el libro fue concebido por el periodismo y nació de un novelista. & # 8221 [36]

Se han producido tres adaptaciones cinematográficas basadas en el libro. El primero se centra en los detalles del libro, mientras que los dos últimos exploran la fascinación de Capote por investigar la novela. En sangre fria (1967) fue dirigida por Richard Brooks y protagonizada por Robert Blake como Perry Smith y Scott Wilson como Richard Hickock. Presenta a John Forsythe como el investigador Alvin Dewey de la Oficina de Investigaciones de Kansas que detuvo a los asesinos. [37] [38] Fue nominado a Mejor Director, Mejor Banda Sonora Original, Mejor Fotografía y Mejor Guión Adaptado. [38] [39]

La segunda y tercera películas se centran en las experiencias de Capote al escribir la historia y su posterior fascinación por los asesinatos. Capota (2005) está protagonizada por Philip Seymour Hoffman, quien ganó el Premio de la Academia al Mejor Actor por su interpretación de Truman Capote, Clifton Collins Jr. como Perry Smith y Catherine Keener como Harper Lee. [40] La película fue aclamada por la crítica [41] y fue nominada a Mejor Película, Mejor Actor (Hoffman), Mejor Actriz de Reparto (Keener), Mejor Director (Bennett Miller) y Mejor Guión Adaptado (Dan Futterman). [42]

J. T. Hunter & # 8217s novela En sangre fría (2016) analiza la posible participación de Hickock y Smith en los asesinatos de la familia Walker. Oni Press publicó la novela gráfica Ande Parks y Chris Samnee & # 8216s Capote en Kansas (2005). [43] El libro de Capote & # 8217 se adaptó a la miniserie de televisión de dos partes. En sangre fria (1996), protagonizada por Anthony Edwards como Dick Hickock, Eric Roberts como Perry Smith y Sam Neill como Alvin Dewey. [44] [45]


Compañía de libros raros de Manhattan

Y así sucedió que en las horas del día de ese miércoles por la mañana, Alvin Dewey, desayunando en la cafetería de un hotel de Topeka, leyó, en la primera página del Kansas City Star, un titular que había esperado durante mucho tiempo: Die on Rope for Crimen sangriento. La historia, escrita por un reportero de Associated Press, comenzaba: & lsquoRichard Eugene Hickock y Perry Edward Smith, socios en el crimen, murieron en la horca en la prisión estatal hoy temprano por uno de los asesinatos más sangrientos en los anales criminales de Kansas. Hickock, de 33 años, murió primero, a las 12:41 a.m. Smith, de 36 años, murió a la 1:19. & rsquo & rdquo

COPIA DE LECTURA ANTICIPADA DE LA PRIMERA EDICIÓN de la obra maestra de Capote & rsquos.

"Uno de los logros más distinguidos en el reportaje de cualquier escritor, En sangre fria apareció por primera vez en serie en el Neoyorquino, donde examinó con extraordinaria profundidad, precisión y dramatismo a las víctimas y sus asesinos. Sin embargo, el estrés de la empresa editorial fue tan inmenso que Capote se volvió adicto a los tranquilizantes y desarrolló un vínculo emocional con los criminales, cuyas muertes en la horca presenció en la penitenciaría estatal de Kansas. De más de cuatro mil páginas de notas mecanografiadas reunidas con Harper Lee, la célebre 'novela de no ficción' de Capote ganó el premio Mystery Writers of America Edgar Allan Poe y cobró un costo psicológico suficiente sobre su autor como para excluir mucho trabajo sostenido en el futuro. "(Biografía nacional estadounidense).



Nueva York: Random House, [1965]. Octavo, sobrecubierta original del primer estado como envoltorios encuadernados sobre papel burdeos, según se emitió. Un poco de frotamiento en las extremidades es una de las copias más bonitas que hemos visto de la frágil copia de lectura anticipada.


¿Quién es Truman Capote?

Truman Capote es un famoso escritor estadounidense, mejor conocido por su novela, Desayuno en Tiffany's, y su libro de crímenes verdaderos, En sangre fria, que muchos creen que anunció el movimiento creativo de no ficción, cuyos seguidores modernos incluyen a Susan Orlean y Jon Krakauer. Truman Capote nació en 1924 y murió en 1984, dejando atrás un impresionante y prolífico cuerpo de trabajo, y una reputación infame como un extravagante miembro de la alta sociedad de Nueva York, alegre e ingenioso.

Cuando era niño, Truman Capote vivía con su tía en Alabama. Su mejor amigo fue Harper Lee, autor de la obra clásica, Matar a un ruiseñor. Algunos especulan que el libro fue escrito por Capote, pero los rumores nunca han sido corroborados. During his teenage years, Capote moved to New York to live with his mother and her husband. Soon after graduating from high school, he got a job at the prestigious magazine, El neoyorquino.

Truman Capote began writing short stories, which were published in numerous literary journals. Su primera novela, Summer Crossing was stolen by his housesitter before he could publish it. Many years later, it resurfaced and was published by Random House in 2005. Truman Capote's first published novel, Other Voices, Other Rooms, was a semi-autobiographical novel about a gay teenager growing up in the South, and was an immediate success.

One of Truman Capote's most famous books was Breakfast at Tiffany's, which consisted of the title novella and three shorter stories. The title novella was made into a classic movie starring legendary actress Audrey Hepburn. The turning point in Capote's career, though, came with the publication of En sangre fria, a nonfiction narrative about the murder of a Kansas family. To write the book, Truman Capote spent four years in Kansas, talking to the townspeople, the police, and even the killers, to gather material for the story. It was serialized in El neoyorquino before publication when the book came out in 1966, it was an international bestseller, and made Truman Capote a household name.

Recently, two separate movies were made based on Truman Capote's life and his experiences in Kansas working on En sangre fria: Capote, for which Phillip Seymour Hoffman won an Oscar for his performance as Capote, and Infamous, which, though critically lauded, had the misfortune of coming out second, and received dismal box office sales.


The Sordid History of Truman Capote’s BREAKFAST AT TIFFANY’S

For over half a century, Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos­&mdashboth the film and the novella on which it was based&mdashhave captivated fans across several generations. Much of the story&rsquos success, it appears, is attributed to Audrey Hepburn, the beloved star who stepped into the shoes of one Miss Holly Golightly and never looked back. The role not only redefined her career and image but helped usher in the age of, to borrow a term from Helen Gurley Brown, &ldquosex and the single girl.&rdquo Decades before El show de Mary Tyler Moore o Sexo y la ciudad, Holly Golightly slipped on her iconic little black dress with her best diamonds and singlehandedly proved that women could have it all.

Antes Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos was adapted into a timeless film classic, the story of party girl Holly and the man infatuated with her was the brainchild of literary icon Truman Capote. Originally, he had sold the novella to Harper&rsquos Bazaar for $2,000 but the magazine later backed out, claiming a story about an independent woman with multiple male friends and a prominent nightlife was just too risqué to publish. Capote, an expert at holding grudges, vowed to never associate himself with Harper&rsquos again, and briefly alleged that Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos would never see the light of day. But just a mere few months later in October 1958, Random House published the novella and don magazine, in its November issue, would serialize it in full.

Como Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos has continued to assert its relevance with every new era, questions surrounding its true origin persist. Was Holly Golightly a real person? Was it someone from Truman Capote&rsquos sordid past? To this day, myths continue to circulate about the &ldquoreal&rdquo Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos, including women claiming to be the inspiration for Holly, each less credible than the last. The story&rsquos real inspiration is the tale of a flamboyant young man from the Southern United States, grappling with abandonment issues and a love of the written word.

Once Upon a Time, in Monroeville, Alabama&hellip

Truman Capote was born Truman Streckfus Persons on September 30, 1924 in New Orleans, Louisiana. His parents divorced when he was 4 and he was sent to live with his mother&rsquos relatives in Monroeville, Alabama. The reason he was sent there was caused less by the divorce and more by the fact that his mother saw him as a burden. According to Sam Wasson&rsquos Fifth Avenue, A.M.: Audrey Hepburn, Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos, and the Dawn of the Modern Woman, Capote&rsquos mother, Lillie Mae Faulk, had tried to abort her pregnancy.

After her divorce, Lillie Mae finally saw her chance to abandon her past life&mdashAKA her child&mdashand &ldquomake it&rdquo in the big city. In New York City, she would introduce herself as Nina, a wannabe fabulous party girl on the hunt for a big rich man to make all her dreams come true (what those dreams actually were, however, remain perpetually unclear). But she was never gone for long: every few months, Nina would turn up again in Monroeville, crying to her son over her broken heart.

&ldquoIn a whirl of fancy fabrics, she would turn up unannounced, tickle Truman&rsquos chin, offer up an assortment of apologies, and disappear,&rdquo wrote Wasson. &ldquoAnd then, as if it had never happened before, it would happen all over again. Inevitably, Nina&rsquos latest beau would reject her for being the peasant girl she tried so hard not to be, and down the service elevator she would go, running all the way back to Truman with enormous tears ballooning from her eyes. A day or so would pass Nina would take stock of her Alabama surroundings and once again, vanish to Manhattan&rsquos highest penthouses.&rdquo

As a result, Capote spent the majority of his life indirectly dealing with his mother&rsquos abandonment. Several biographers note that his tendency to hold grudges and cut people out of his life after minor mishaps was all linked back to his mother issues and unstable childhood, as well as his quirk of exaggerating reality and making claims that he was friends with rich and famous people he had never even met, such as Greta Garbo. And while other schools of thought claim that Capote being a homosexual was also caused by his relationship with his mother, it&rsquos more likely that his adult dependency on drugs and alcohol were indirectly caused by Nina as well.

If There&rsquos Nothing Missing in Her Life, Why Do These Tears Come at Night?

As Wasson observes, Holly Golightly was a composite of multiple nonfictions. &ldquoShe took her dreams of society from Truman&rsquos own mother, her existential anxieties from Capote himself, but her personality, which seemed so intimately hers, would come from the tight-knit coterie of Manhattan divas Truman so flagrantly adored,&rdquo he wrote. &ldquoHe called them his swans.&rdquo

While there are several &ldquoswans&rdquo who are believed to have contributed to the fictional creation of Holly, including Gloria Guinness, Oona O&rsquoNeill Chaplin, Carol Marcus, and Gloria Vanderbilt, there is one in particular that is thought to have gone above and beyond in terms of inspiration: Babe Paley, the wife of William S. &ldquoBill&rdquo Paley, founder of the CBS television network.

&ldquoI was madly in love with her,&rdquo Capote told Gerald Clarke, author of the 1988 biography Capote. &ldquoI just thought she was absolutely fantastic! She was one of the two or three great obsessions of my life. She was the only person in my whole life that I liked everything about. I consider her one of the three greatest beauties in the world, the other two being Gloria Guinness and Garbo. But Babe, I think, was los most beautiful. She was in fact the most beautiful woman of the twentieth century &hellip [S]he was also the most chic woman I have ever known.&rdquo

Babe Paley&rsquos chic influence was just too grand, opulent, and commanding to not be the central inspiration for Holly Golightly. As Wasson notes, she was almost &ldquoembarrassingly rich,&rdquo owning over one million dollars worth of Harry Winston, Cartier, Tiffany&rsquos, and Van Cleef & Arpels. &ldquoShe was, in short, everything Truman&rsquos mother, and Holly Golightly, had wanted to be,&rdquo he observed. &ldquoBut Nina was dead, and Truman, though he threw himself into the swans, would never find peace. Neither, for that matter, would his beautiful Babe.&rdquo

Although on the surface Paley had everything she could have ever wanted and more, she and Bill had a relentlessly unhappy marriage. According to Capote&rsquos testimony to Clarke, Babe had twice attempted suicide, once with pills and once by attempting to slit her wrists, and both times Capote claimed to have saved her. &ldquoBabe was caught,&rdquo Wasson wrote. &ldquoTruman would fashion Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos so Holly Golightly wouldn&rsquot be.&rdquo

Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos Comes to Life

For all of his flamboyantly distinct eccentricities, Truman Capote was a precise, perfectionistic, and accomplished writer. He would openly scoff at writers who would not map out their work beforehand, as Capote preferred to map, plan, reconsider, plan, and map it all out again before he typed a single word. &ldquoWith Tiffany&rsquos, he intended to evolve his style away from the florid swirls of, say, [Other Voices, Other Rooms] and move toward a more measured, more subdued prose style,&rdquo stated Wasson. &ldquoThe page, he told those who asked, was no longer his playground it was his operating room, and like a surgeon&mdashlike Flaubert, one of his heroes&mdashhe endeavored to keep surprises to an absolute minimum.&rdquo

Tiempo Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos would later be adapted into a romantic comedy film by Paramount, that was never the story&rsquos original intention. Aside from the fact that Holly Golightly was very much ahead of her time in terms of liberating herself from patriarchal oppression, selling herself in order to gain independence, the original novella is laced with something that was deliberately left out of its film adaptation: queer subtext. Holly is unfazed by the fact that Capote&rsquos nameless narrator, whom she mysteriously calls &ldquoFred&rdquo after her brother, is gay, and the character even laments at being a &ldquobit of a dyke&rdquo herself.

Although it&rsquos never explicitly stated or discussed, given that male homosexuality was still illegal in North America, &ldquoFred&rdquo is indeed a homosexual, and Holly even refers to him as &ldquoMaude&rdquo&mdashgay slang from the 50s. &ldquo[H]e and Holly are bound to one another by their sexually unorthodox positions,&rdquo Wasson observed. &ldquoUnlike Holly and her lovers, they share an intimacy that isn&rsquot tethered to their erotic or financial needs. In other words, they can love each other freely, the way no two married people can.&rdquo In this sense, Capote&rsquos Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos was a faint precursor to Voluntad y gracia. As Jamie Brickhouse from El Huffington Post wrote, &ldquoSure, [Holly&rsquos] the kind of woman straight men fall for. But she&rsquos the kind of girl gay men adore.&rdquo Or, to put it in more modern terms: straight men want to be with her, straight women and gay men want to be her.

&ldquoChallenging the sanctity of heterosexual dominion, Capote is suggesting that the gendered strictures of who makes the money (men) and who doesn&rsquot (women) might not be as enriching as the romance between a gay man and straight woman,&rdquo wrote Wasson. &ldquoThis isn&rsquot because he believed platonic relationships were somehow ideal, or because he considered straight people bores, but because in 1958, with wives across America financially dependent upon their husbands, being a married woman was a euphemism for being caught.&rdquo

As Capote himself later revealed in an interview, Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos was merely observing a trend he had noticed in New York City, one that was perhaps borne from his own mother, of young women flocking to the big city to become famous society girls, bedding famous men and having their names become mainstays in gossip columns. &ldquoThe main reason I wrote about Holly, outside of the fact that I liked her so much, was that she was such a symbol of all these girls who come to New York and spin in the sun for a moment like May flies and then disappear,&rdquo he said. &ldquoI wanted to rescue one girl from that anonymity and preserve her for prosperity.&rdquo

From the Page to the Screen

After selling the screen rights for Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos to Paramount, it became somewhat common knowledge that Capote had one and only one actress in mind to play Holly Golightly: little girl lost herself, Marilyn Monroe. Several myths surrounding the actress not getting cast have continued to circulate, with the general consensus being that Marilyn was already considered to be a high-maintenance diva and too much of a liability, so Paramount refused to even consider her. But that was never entirely true.

While the real-life similarities between Holly and Marilyn practically write themselves (&ldquoI&rsquove never had a home,&rdquo Monroe once told Capote, &ldquonot a real one with all my own furniture&rdquo), Martin Jurow&mdashproducer of the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos film&mdashwas merely unconvinced that Monroe was a strong enough actress for the role. &ldquoHolly had to be sharp and tough, and as anyone who saw Marilyn could sense, she was about as tough as a tulip,&rdquo Wasson wrote. &ldquoIt was difficult to imagine a personality like that living like Holly, all on her own in the big city.&rdquo And, of course, there were very practical matters of film production to take into account. For all that we&rsquove come to love and appreciate about Marilyn now, she did have a reputation for chronic lateness and an almost pathological inability to remember dialogue, sometimes requiring upwards of 50 takes for a single line. &ldquoIt&rsquos not that she was mean,&rdquo remembered Billy Wilder, director of El picor siete años. &ldquoIt&rsquos just that she had no sense of time, nor conscience that that three hundred people had been waiting hours for her.&rdquo

After much convincing and deliberations over script objections, Audrey Hepburn would eventually become the star to fill the shoes of Holly Golightly on the screen. While director Blake Edwards would recall that Hepburn was hopelessly insecure on the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos set and in need of constant reassurance that she wasn&rsquot out of her league (an insecurity believed to be poked at most by her sometimes chaotic marriage to Mel Ferrer), Holly would become the most iconic performance of Hepburn&rsquos career. While the actress would later testify that Holly was her most difficult role since she was an introvert playing an extrovert, the film&rsquos timeless quality would ultimately be attributed to what Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos, both the novella and its film adaptation, did for the liberation of women during second-wave feminism.

&ldquoThe woman in me really likes Audrey Hepburn because she is successful at what she&rsquos doing, she&rsquos sort of in charge of herself, and is a realist beyond being so cute and attractive,&rdquo said film critic Judith Crist in 2009. &ldquoThat appeal&mdasha woman&rsquos appeal&mdashcomes from the very basic idea of the gamine, and not just the gamine&rsquos physical being, but the idea of her cleverness. Marilyn didn&rsquot have that, but Audrey did. As a gamine, shrewdness was available to her. So she&rsquos a call girl, but we let her have it. There&rsquos even something very appealing about it. We won&rsquot admit it, but don&rsquot we, really, all secretly admire her for it? Because she gets away with it? Because she&rsquos so imperious, and at the same time is slightly, shall we say, immoral?&rdquo

As for Truman Capote&rsquos opinion on the final product of the film? Aside from one drunken incident in which Patricia Snell, Blake Edwards&rsquos first wife, recalled that Capote told her he was &ldquothrilled&rdquo with the result of her husband&rsquos work, he spent the rest of his life trashing the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos film adaptation. In an interview years later, when asked what he thought was wrong with the film version, he replied, &ldquoOh god, just everything.&rdquo He referred to it as the &ldquomost miscast film&rdquo he&rsquod ever seen and that it made him want to throw up, particularly the one element that just about everyone can agree did not age well about the Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos film: Mickey Rooney as Mr. Yunioshi. Capote also called Edwards a &ldquolousy director&rdquo and badmouthed George Axelrod&rsquos script, claiming that they had offered him the job of writing the script but he had turned it down. Always one for inventive fictions, Capote was never offered that job, as Paramount wanted someone who wouldn&rsquot fight their changes.

Will the Real Holly Golightly Please Stand Up?

After the first publication of Breakfast at Tiffany&rsquos in 1958, flocks of women all over New York City began to announce that they were the real-life inspiration for Holly Golightly, beginning what Capote referred to as &ldquoThe Holly Golightly Sweepstakes.&rdquo In 1959, bookstore owner Bonnie Golightly sued the author for $800,000 of libel and invasion of privacy charges, claiming that she also lived in a Manhattan brownstone, loved cats, and was an avid folk singer in her spare time.

In a bizarre attempt to rectify things, author James Michener wrote a letter to Random House in Capote&rsquos defense, claiming that he knew Bonnie&rsquos claims were false since the author personally told him the inspiration for the character came from a &ldquowonderful young girl from Montana.&rdquo However, the letter never made it to the publisher, as once Capote caught wind of it, he demanded that Michener burn it, in fear that this woman would sue, too. Michener claimed to have met the Montana woman, someone with &ldquomaximum beauty and a rowdy sense of humor.&rdquo Ultimately, neither woman ended up taking a case to court: Bonnie was ridiculed into backing out of her lawsuit, and the Montana woman supposedly rode out her 15 minutes of fame.

Later, Capote claimed that the inspiration for Holly Golightly came from a German refugee, a young girl of just 17 years who arrived in New York City at the beginning of World War II. &ldquoVery few people were aware of this, however, because she spoke English without any trace of an accent,&rdquo he said. &ldquoShe had an apartment in the brownstone where I lived and we became great friends.&rdquo He claimed that Holly&rsquos friendship with gangster Sally Tomato was fictionalized, but based on true events that happened to the real Holly. Gerald Clarke said that Capote told him a similar story. &ldquoBut in the version I heard she was Swiss. He even gave me her name. I could never find any of his friends who remembered her.&rdquo Clarke was also well aware of women who continued to claim they were the real Holly Golightly even decades later, all of them alleging they were friends with Capote at one time or another. &ldquoThere were lots of women like that in those days,&rdquo he said, &ldquoand my guess is that Holly owed something to any number of them.&rdquo

Perhaps it&rsquos Holly&rsquos effervescent quality and her attempt to feel everything at once and nothing at all that continues to propel her forward in time. &ldquo[I]n her reckless love of individuality, whether she knows it or not, Holly rustles with the fervor of the next generation,&rdquo Wasson stated. Everything grows older with time, but it&rsquos the mark of an outstanding literary achievement to create a character and a story that continues to awake and inspire each new generation that discovers them. Since Truman Capote liked making up stories so much, it&rsquos most likely that his precious Holly was always meant to be an enigma: of his imagination, and of our hearts.


Manhattan Rare Book Company

&ldquoAnd so it happened that in the daylight hours of that Wednesday morning, Alvin Dewey, breakfasting in the coffee shop of a Topeka hotel, read, on the first page of the Kansas City Star, a headline he had long awaited: Die on Rope for Bloody Crime. The story, written by an Associated Press reporter, began: &lsquoRichard Eugene Hickock and Perry Edward Smith, partners in crime, died on the gallows at the state prison early today for one of the bloodiest murders in Kansas criminal annals. Hickock, 33 years old, died first, at 12:41 A.M. Smith, 36, died at 1:19. &rsquo&rdquo

FIRST EDITION of Capote's masterpiece, SIGNED BY CAPOTE on half-title.

"One of the more distinguished achievements in reportage by any writer, In Cold Blood first appeared serially in the New Yorker, where it examined with extraordinary depth, precision, and drama the victims and their killers. So immense was the stress of the editorial undertaking, however, that Capote became addicted to tranquilizers and developed an emotional attachment to the criminals, whose deaths by hanging he witnessed at the Kansas state penitentiary. From more than four thousand pages of typewritten notes gathered with Harper Lee, Capote's celebrated 'non-fiction novel' won the Mystery Writers of America Edgar Allan Poe Award and exacted enough of a psychological toll upon its author to preclude much sustained work in the future" (American National Biography).

New York: Random House, [1965]. Octavo, original maroon cloth, original dust jacket. Book fine, dust jacket with a little bit of toning to spine, otherwise fine.


From the Archives: Truman Capote Dies Wrote ‘In Cold Blood’

Truman Capote and Joanne Carson in the 1970s in Palm Srings. The photo has an inscription for their friend Roddy McDowall.

Author Truman Capote, the impish intellectual who became almost as famous for his acerbic wit on television as for the journalistic-style novels that were his hallmark, died Saturday in Bel-Air. He would have been 60 years old Sept. 30.

Capote, who wrote “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” and “In Cold Blood,” died about noon at the home of his close friend, Joanne Carson, who was divorced from talk show host Johnny Carson in 1972. A tough, high-strung little man who had battled lifelong addictions to drugs and alcohol, he had grown frail in recent years and had been in and out of hospitals.

He is considered one of the most lyrical, and undoubtedly most flamboyant, American writers of the 20th Century.

In an open attempt to secure his place in the literary world, Capote claimed that “In Cold Blood,” a 1964 novel about a multiple murder in Kansas, pioneered a new literary form—the nonfiction novel. Although the book was universally acclaimed, critics have continued to argue the value of the nonfiction novel.

He had no doubt of its value, though. “There are three or four writers left in my generation in this race and I have this feeling that I am going to win it,” he told an interviewer in 1980.

“He was in terrific spirits Friday night,” Carson said in a telephone interview. “We went swimming and we were making plans for his 60th birthday party. Then this morning, he said he was tired and wanted to take a nap.”

She found him unconscious when she tried to wake him shortly after noon, she said, and she called paramedics. She said he had been recently diagnosed as having phlebitis. Police said an autopsy will determine the cause.

He had spent Friday night planning a large black-tie dinner for his 60th birthday and working on a novel called “Answered Prayers” that he has been writing since the 1950s, Carson said. Parts of it were published in Esquire magazine in the 1970s. He had long told friends that this book was to be his last before he died.

“He brought what he had written last night in to me in a spiral notebook and asked me to read it,” Carson said. “He always said this would be the last book he would ever write. It was by far his most difficult. He was letting his barriers down in this book and writing from his heart and soul.

“He was my protector and my best friend,” Carson said, crying. “What am I going to do without him?”

Just how much of the curious, jet-setting homosexual novelist will be revealed in the book is unknown. Capote’s friend and literary representative, Alan U. Schwartz, said his last writings will be reviewed to determine if they are sufficiently complete to publish what was expected to be the most controversial of his often-controversial writings.

“His last book was not entirely autobiographical, but it did deal with a male character that was a kind of male Holly-Go-Lightly,” he said, referring to the call girl character in “Breakfast at Tiffany’s.”

“Truman was kind of whimsical and mischievous and he had a curious kind of asexuality. I think he saw himself as a modern-day Peter Pan,” Schwartz said.

Born Truman Streckfus Persons in New Orleans on Sept. 30, 1924, to a former Miss Alabama, Capote was raised by a series of aunts and grandmothers in the rural South. He made up stories to help deal with his loneliness and his separation from his parents.

Determined since the age of 10 to be a writer, he attended Trinity School and St. John’s Academy in New York and public schools in Greenwich, Conn. His mother later married a well-to-do businessman named Capote and the adopted boy chose to take the name. His mother ultimately died of an apparent drug overdose.

By the age of 17, when he took a job at New Yorker magazine, Capote was known for his mannerisms and eccentric style of dress.

Capote’s literary career began in 1944 with the publication of a short story, “Miriam.” His first novel, “Other Voices, Other Rooms,” was published in 1948. But the literary value of the novel was lost in the sensation created by a jacket photo of the 23-year-old Capote, showing him reclining on a sofa and looking, one critic said, “as if he were dreamily contemplating some outrage against conventional morality.”

Capote later claimed that the photo was selected by accident, but readers at the time suspected that Capote may have identified with the book’s protagonist and that “Other Voices, Other Rooms” was a confession of sexual deviation, critics said.

The resulting publicity helped to make the book a best-seller and Capote well known.

Lest the public forget that Capote enjoyed the unusual, he posed again in the same manner -- this time as a middle-aged legend -- for his “Music for Chameleons,” published in 1980. That was his last book.

In the years that followed “Other Voices, Other Rooms,” he wrote the best-selling “Breakfast at Tiffany’s” and “In Cold Blood,” his most famous work.

In that book, published in 1965, Capote was hailed by some literary critics for his masterful investigative reporting on the lives of two killers condemned to death for slaying four members of the Herbert Clutter family near Garden City, Kan.

Capote himself hailed the book as the first “nonfiction novel.”

But others criticized Capote, questioning the propriety of earning millions on a book based on the deaths of four family members. They also criticized Capote’s continual promotion of the book, to which Capote retorted: “A boy has to hustle his book.”

The work originally appeared in The New Yorker, boosting the magazine’s sales.

Toast of High Society

After the book was published Capote became the toast of New York and threw an elaborate masked ball at the Plaza hotel.

“When I wrote ‘In Cold Blood,’ many were critical,” Capote said later. “I spent six years on that book wandering the plains of Kansas and nearly went mad, but I saw it through. (Fellow author Norman) Mailer called it ‘a failure of the imagination,’ and now I see that the only prizes Norman wins are for some small service to him.”

Capote never concealed his dislike for Mailer, once saying that Mailer was not a very good novelist. He added: “Norman is a very, very good literary critic, even though he has some foolish ideas. . . . "

But he cultivated famous enemies, just as he cultivated famous friends.

Speaking in his patented high-pitched whine, Capote delighted in skewering his arch foes in his frequent television appearances and in his writing.

Novelist Gore Vidal, once a close friend, sued him for libel in 1976 after he was quoted as saying that Robert F. Kennedy had had Vidal thrown out of the White House in a drunken stupor. That lawsuit was just recently settled — “amicably,” Schwartz said.

“Quite a lot of people disliked him,” said Saint Subber, a Broadway producer who did theatrical versions of Capote’s “The Grass Harp” and “House of Flowers.” “I knew him over 40 years. To me, he was a Roman candle. He was always celebrating life.”

Capote often grabbed more headlines than his books did. He frequented New York’s Studio 54 in its heyday and was ofter seen in the company of such social luminaries as Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Lee Radziwill, C.Z. and Winston Guest and Klaus and Martha (Sonny) von Bulow.

Controversy was not the only thing that dogged Capote’s later years.

He had bouts with alcohol and once went into great detail about it before a college audience in Maryland.

Incoherent in Interview

He said he often mixed alcohol with medication. “I put them together like some sort of cocktail,” he said in a July, 1978, television interview with Stanley Siegel in New York. The host stopped the interview when Capote began rambling incoherently about his drinking and drug problems.

In August, 1983, Capote pleaded guilty to a charge of drunk driving on New York’s Long Island. Capote was scolded by the judge for appearing in court in blue shorts that came to the middle of his thighs, a white shirt and a sports jacket.

Capote was hospitalized in April, 1983, in Montgomery, Ala., after test showed a “toxic level” of dilantin and phenobarbital in his system. Doctors said he had a “bad reaction” to the drugs, which are used to control epileptic-type seizures.

In August, 1981, he collapsed from a convulsive seizure in the lobby of his Manhattan apartment.

Through it all, Capote gamely held on. He told an interviewer in 1980:

“I’ve always seen myself as a winner, even as a kid. If I hadn’t I just might have gone down the drain a couple of times. I’ve got something inside of me -- peasant-like and stubborn — and I’m in it ‘til the end of the race.”

The 5-foot, 3-inch author had homes on New York’s Long Island and Switzerland and recently sold a home in Palm Springs, but he preferred his Manhattan apartment as his home base. Said Capote of Southern California:

“It’s like living in Forest Lawn. There is no intellectual life, only going to the studio and coming from the studio. San Francisco has a cozy drama to it, but it is one the most provincial cities in the world. It’s like a carousel one sees the same people over and over in about 10 days.”

Capote thought Paris and Moscow were boring Tokyo was “hell on earth” and Italy’s Venice was a “gradually dying museum.”

But New York was the apple of Capote’s eye. “It’s the only city I know that is a city city. It is going 24 hours a day. If you want to buy a book at 4 in the morning, you can buy a book . . . . "

Although he claimed to dislike Los Angeles, he frequently visited Carson in Bel-Air and had his own room in her house.

Capote won numerous literary awards, including the O. Henry Award in 1946, 1948 and 1951 the Mystery Writers of America Edgar Allan Poe Award in 1966 and an Emmy Award for television adaptation in 1967.

He also wrote screenplays, collaborating with John Huston in the 1953 film, “Beat the Devil.” In 1976, he made his acting debut as an eccentric millionaire detective in Neil Simon’s “Murder by Death.”

“Music for Chameleons,” a collection of his short stories, has been adapted to a screenplay for a movie and is scheduled to begin shooting shortly.

Carson said Capote also was scheduled to appear on a television show with her next month that was to have been a pilot for a possible TV series. Carson has a program on cable television.

“He was really rather secretive about it,” Clarke said. “He wanted to live long enough to finish the book, and then he wanted to die. He told me that.”

He was working on the last chapter of the book hours before he died, Carson said. “He borrowed two pens and was writing late last night,” she said.

She read the last two lines. They are typical of the detailed, lyrical description that marked his writings:

“There were flowers everywhere, masses of winter lilac, primrose, and lavender-edged roses. Beautiful bound books lined all the walls in the living room.”

Friends said funeral arrangements are pending.

Times staff writers Mark Balthazar and Dean Murphy also contributed to this story.


Mas leido

"I never had any problem about being homosexual," he said. "I mean, look at me. I was always right out there. The other kids liked me for that. I was really quite popular. I was amusing and I was pretty. I didn't look like anybody else and I wasn't like anybody else."

Capote said he liked his writing "to be very clear and simple as though you were sitting by the fire on a cold night and I were telling you the story." He wrote in pencil, in lined notebooks, laboring over each successive page until he had it the way he wanted it.

When he researched "In Cold Blood," the story of a brutal murder in Kansas and the arrest, trial and execution of the two murderers, he reportedly kept his research notes on index cards, tied with ribbons and stored in Tiffany gift boxes.

His flamboyance, his contacts among the upper crust - he was frequently in the company of Jacqueline Onassis, Lee Radziwill, C.Z. Guest and Klaus and Martha (Sunny) von Bulow - and his outspokenness made him a sought after guest on television talk shows, and it was through the medium of TV that he became familiar to the people of not only America, but the entire world.

He was famous for his sardonic remarks. He wrote of actress Meryl Streep: "Her nose… reminds you of an anteater."


  • Richard Hickock and Perry Smith murdered the Clutter family in Kansas in 1959
  • Journalist Capote based his groundbreaking true crime book on them
  • He said the pair wrongly believed Mr Clutter had a safe, and hoped to burgle it
  • When they found the house empty of valuables, they killed him, his wife and kids
  • Hickock wrote his own memoir, The High Road to Hell, from Death Row
  • He implied that he had been paid to kill the family by a figure named 'Roberts'
  • But that claim doesn't square with the known facts about the case
  • However Capote attempted to buy out the manuscript to block competition
  • It was lost for decades - which some believe was done deliberately

Published: 23:19 BST, 23 March 2017 | Updated: 08:14 BST, 24 March 2017

Truman Capote's true-life tale of the 1959 murder of a Kansas family, In Cold Blood, may not be all it seems, it has emerged.

One of the murderers, Richard Hickock, wrote his own manuscript, which may have been suppressed by Capote, a new report revealed.

And even more chillingly, Hickock's account suggests that while Capote wrote the murders up as a burglary gone wrong, it was actually a paid hit, the Wall Street Journal reported.

Killers: Richard Hickock (left) and Perry Smith (right) were hanged in 1965 for killing a Kansas family in 1959. It was portrayed as a burglary gone horribly wrong they left with less than $50

Author: Truman Capote released the groundbreaking true crime book In Cold Blood, based on interviews with the pair and locals, in 1966. But Hickock wrote his own, once-lost manuscript

According to Capote's 1966 book, Hickock and accomplice Perry Smith broke into the home of the Clutter family in western Kansas on November 14, 1959 to commit burglary.

They had been told that Clutter kept $10,000 in a safe, and planned to steal the money and run away to Mexico.

As In Cold Blood tells it, the pair tied up the family and but found no safe - or any valuables - anywhere.

Worried about leaving witnesses, the deeply unstable Smith then cut the throat of Herb Clutter, 48, who was tied up in the basement, before shooting him in the head with a shotgun.

'I didn't want to harm the man,' Smith told Capote from prison. 'I thought he was a very nice gentleman. Soft spoken.

'I thought so right up to the moment I cut his throat.'

The pair then walked through the house, where Herb's wife, Bonnie, 45, and their two children, 16-year-old Nancy and 15-year-old Kenyon, were tied up, and killed each with a single shotgun blast to the head.

Kenyon died in the room next to the basement. Bonnie and Nancy were both bound and murdered in their bedrooms.

They fled with a portable radio, a pair of binoculars and less than $50 in cash. They were caught the following month and hanged in 1965.

Victims: Herb Clutter (left), 48, was tied up in the basement of his home. Smith slit his throat then shot him. His wife, Bonnie Clutter (right), 45, was shot dead while tied to her bed

Children: Nancy Clutter (left), 16, was tied to her bed when she was shot. Kenyon Clutter (right), 15, was bound in the room next to his father when Smith shot him

Deadly: The shotgun and knife used to kill the Clutters and their children are seen here in 1960. Hickock suggested in his manuscript that the deaths were paid for by a man known as 'Roberts'

That's how Truman told it in his groundbreaking narrative nonfiction book, but Hickock's own memoir, written in 1962 but forgotten until now, contradict Capote's version.

The documents, which have resurfaced after a Wall Street Journal investigation, suggest that the murders were even more cold-blooded than Capote claimed.

As Hickock tells it, he gleefully shone a torch onto each victim's face to aid Smith in his murders.

On recalling how Kenyon's head was destroyed by Smith's shotgun blast, Hickock wrote: 'I would of [sic] liked to see the embalmer fill that hole.'

But there are even more disquieting hints that the killers were not bungling burglars but paid hitmen.

At one point in the 200-page handwritten manuscript, which had made its way into the hands of a lawyer who worked on the case, Hickock makes a reference to someone called 'Roberts' who appears to be paying them money.

Describing the seconds before the murders, Hickock says: 'We were running short on time.

'It was almost two o'clock and our meeting with Roberts was about an hour away. We didn't want to miss that. Five thousand bucks is a lot of dough.'

And earlier, as the pair pulled up to the Clutters' house, Hickock said he thought: 'I was going to kill a person. Maybe more than one. ¿Podría hacerlo yo? Maybe I'll back out.

'But I can't back out, I've taken the money. I've spent some of it. Besides, I thought, I know too much.'

Exactly who Roberts is, and what his role in the grisly murders was, is unclear.

Death house: Bodies of the Clutter clan are removed from their home by police. Hickock's claim of a paid hit contradicts some known facts about the case

Scene of the crime: Nancy was tied to this bed when she was shot in the head by Smith. It's not clear why the men, if hired as hitmen, would not turn in their employer for a plea deal

Basement: This is the basement in which Herb Clutter was murdered. Capote said the men broke in to steal a safe he supposedly had, and Smith became angry because there wasn't one

The claims also raise questions about the truthfulness of Hickock's story.

If they were being paid thousands of dollars to murder the family, a skeptic might ask, where did the money go after they left the house?

Why didn't they turn in Roberts as a plea deal when they were brought in for questioning?

And why did Hickock's former cellmate and ex-Clutter employee Floyd Wells testify that he told Hickock about the supposed safe, causing the robbery in the first place?

'I don't believe for a minute that they got paid to do it,' Michael Stone, a Columbia University psychiatrist specializing in the study of killers, told the Wall Street Journal after reading the manuscript.

Still, there is evidence to suggest that regardless of its truthfulness, the document unnerved Capote, and some believe he had it buried.

Hickock and journalist Mack Nations had tried to sell The High Road to Hell to publishers Random House in 1962.

But the publishing house turned it down, as they had already contracted Capote to write In Cold Blood.

Slaughtered: Mrs Clutter was shot dead while tied to her bed (pictured). Both men appeared to have no money when caught which doesn't fit with Hickock's claim that they were paid $5,000

Film: Capote (seen on the set of the film of 'In Cold Blood' in 1967) made his name with the book. He reportedly tried to buy out the manuscript and was worried it would affect his book


Ver el vídeo: Jonathan Winters Accidentally Glued His Cat to The Floor, on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson (Mayo 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Wynton

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  3. Kagashakar

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  6. Calix

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  7. Malmaran

    ¿No puedes explicarlo con más detalle?



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