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Corinto

Corinto


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La antigua Corinto, cuyas ruinas se encuentran en la moderna ciudad de Corinto, fue una ciudad de gran importancia en la Antigua Grecia y en la Antigua Roma. Situada entre la Grecia continental y el Peloponeso, Corinto era un puerto vital y una próspera ciudad-estado, además de tener un significado religioso.

Historia de Corinto

Habitada desde el período neolítico, Corinto creció a partir del siglo VIII a. C. bajo los antiguos griegos, convirtiéndose en un centro de comercio y una ciudad de grandes riquezas. Gran parte de esta riqueza se acumuló desde el siglo VII a. C. bajo el gobierno de Periandro, quien explotó la ubicación de Corinto en el istmo de Corinto. Al viajar a través de Corinto, los barcos podrían cruzar rápidamente entre el Golfo de Corinto y el Golfo Sarónico, evitando la necesidad de navegar alrededor de la costa. Corinth tenía los diolkos, un dispositivo de transporte de barcos que les permitía hacer precisamente eso. A los propietarios de los barcos se les cobró por usar este dispositivo, lo que proporcionó a Corinth un flujo continuo de ingresos.

Corinto se convirtió en una ciudad-estado tan poderosa que incluso estableció varias colonias como Siracusa y Epidamnus. En el 338 a. C., tras la Guerra del Peloponeso y la posterior Guerra de Corinto, Corinto fue conquistada por Filipo II de Macedonia. A lo largo de la era clásica, Corinto había celebrado torneos deportivos regulares conocidos como los Juegos Istmicos. Estos continuaron bajo los macedonios y, de hecho, fue en los Juegos del Istmo del 336 a. C. que Alejandro el Grande fue seleccionado para liderar a los macedonios en la guerra contra Persia.

En 146 a. C., Corinto sufrió una destrucción parcial por la invasión del general romano Mumio, aunque más tarde fue reconstruida bajo Julio César, y finalmente se convirtió en una ciudad romana aún más próspera. El declive de Corinto comenzó en el 267 d. C. tras la invasión de los herulianos. En los años siguientes, caería en manos de los turcos, los Caballeros de Malta, los venecianos y, finalmente, los griegos, cada uno de estos conflictos, junto con numerosos desastres naturales, agotaría, pero nunca destruyó por completo, los lugares que alguna vez fueron magníficos de la ciudad.

Otro aspecto interesante de Corinto es su diversa historia religiosa. Dedicada a las deidades griegas de Apolo, Octavia y Afrodita, durante la época romana también fue el hogar de una gran comunidad judía y fue visitada por el apóstol Pablo.

Corinto hoy

Hoy en día, los visitantes de Corinto pueden ver sus muchos sitios antiguos, incluidas las ruinas bastante bien conservadas del Templo de Apolo, que fue construido en 550 a. C. y las columnas restantes del Templo de Octavia. Por el contrario, solo quedan unos pocos restos del antiguo Templo de Afrodita, que alguna vez fue el hogar de las prostitutas sagradas de Corinto. Quizás lo que hace de Corinto un sitio tan fascinante es que, debido a su gran riqueza a lo largo de los años, la arquitectura dórica de esta antigua ciudad era excepcionalmente ornamentada.

Más allá de estos sitios sagrados, gran parte de la infraestructura original de Corinto es visible junto con muchos restos de la ciudad de la era romana, incluido el Teatro y la Fuente Peirene.

Aquellos que quieran aprender más sobre Corinto y ver muchos de los artefactos de su excavación también pueden visitar el Museo Arqueológico de la Antigua Corinto.

Llegar a Corinto

Corinto se encuentra en un istmo y es fácilmente accesible desde Atenas por la autopista 8. El viaje debería durar poco más de una hora. Corinto también tiene una estación de tren, con conexiones directas a Atenas (1 hora) y Kiato (40 minutos).


Batalla de Corinto

En octubre de 1862, las tropas de la Unión al mando del mayor general William Rosecrans (1819-98) derrotaron a las fuerzas confederadas al mando del mayor general Sterling Price (1809-67) y el mayor general Earl Van Dorn (1820-63) en el cruce ferroviario clave de Corinto, Mississippi. . Con la esperanza de apoderarse de Corinto e interrumpir las líneas de suministro y comunicación de la Unión, los confederados atacaron la mañana del 3 de octubre. Aprovechando una brecha en las defensas de la Unión, las fuerzas de Van Dorn y # x2019 pudieron hacer retroceder a las tropas de Rosecrans & # x2019 detrás de su línea de fortificaciones. Sin embargo, la decisión de Van Dorn de esperar hasta el día siguiente para aprovechar su ventaja permitió que Rosecransa y sus hombres se reagruparan. El 4 de octubre, la Unión repelió el asalto confederado y después de horas de feroces combates cuerpo a cuerpo, Van Dorn ordenó la retirada.


Corinto: una breve historia

Examinando la historia de Corinto a través de altibajos, guerras y éxitos, desde el Neolítico hasta el período tardorromano.

Introducción

Corinto es una ciudad antigua con una historia larga y variada, ha experimentado períodos de gran riqueza y poder, y períodos de decadencia e incluso destrucción. En varios momentos de su historia, fue una de las ciudades más importantes de Grecia. Sin embargo, los estudios sobre la ciudad son mucho menos comunes que los de Atenas o Esparta, razones por las que pretendo explorar en otra ocasión. Sin embargo, en un intento de hacer algo para llenar ese vacío, y en preparación para futuros artículos que discutan las excavaciones en Corinto, el enfoque en Atenas en los estudios griegos clásicos y otros temas relacionados con Corinto, primero deseo establecer una breve historia. de la ciudad desde el Neolítico hasta el período tardorromano.

El Neolítico y la Edad del Bronce

El sitio de la antigua Corinto probablemente fue ocupado por primera vez alrededor del 6500 AC, gracias a la presencia de buenas fuentes de agua y tierras fértiles (Lavezzi 2003, 63). Con el tiempo, la idoneidad del sitio como centro comercial, con acceso a buenos puertos tanto en el golfo de Corinto como en el golfo Sarónico, así como el control de las rutas terrestres de entrada y salida del Peloponeso, lo hizo bastante rico. comercio al comienzo del período Heládico Temprano - 2800-2100BC (Blegen 1920, 8).

Sin embargo, hay una reducción dramática en los restos de cerámica durante la fase del Heládico II temprano (2500-2300 aC), y solo quedan restos mínimos que datan de las fases EHIII y MH (Lavezzi 2003, 73-74) - el asentamiento perdió su importancia, riqueza y población con bastante rapidez, aunque no está claro por qué.

Si bien la propia Corinto parece haber estado escasamente poblada en el período micénico (1900-1100 aC), un sitio cercano en Korakou, que comerciaba a través del golfo de Corinto, estaba habitado, pero dejó de existir al final del período micénico (Dunbabin 1948, pág. 60). Hornblower sugiere que la falta de importancia de Corinto durante la era micénica puede haber sido simplemente porque "cortó las principales rutas de penetración micénica" (2002, 114).

Los períodos geométrico y arcaico

Durante el período geométrico temprano, alrededor del 900 a. C., se cree que los dorios se asentaron en Corinto, así como en Esparta y otros sitios en el Peloponeso (Dunbabin 1948, 62-63). Alrededor del 750 a. C., dos cambios clave en la arqueología de Corinto marcan un punto de inflexión: primero, hubo una disminución en el número de ajuares funerarios, y durante dos siglos después los ajuares funerarios siguieron siendo raros (Osborne 1996, 83) Hay un aumento en la calidad de las cerámicas producidas localmente a medida que se desarrolla el estilo de decoración de cerámica de Protocorinthian (Dunbabin 1948, 65). También en esta época, las colonias corintias de Siracusa, en Sicilia, y Corcira, la actual Corfú en el noroeste de Grecia. , se fundaron (Dunbabin 1948, 65), lo que permitió a la ciudad ampliar sus redes comerciales y su influencia.

Cada ciudad de Grecia tenía rasgos distintivos utilizados en su cerámica geométrica. Por ejemplo, la decoración argiva tendió a favorecer a los caballos, con también hombres, pájaros y peces representados. La cerámica geométrica corintia presentaba predominantemente pájaros pequeños durante el siglo VIII, aunque a medida que se desarrollaba el estilo Protocorintio, el alfarero también experimentó con la inclusión de guerreros y animales (Osborne 1996, 130-131). A partir del estilo Protocorintio, mezclado con influencias de Fenicia que llegaron a Corinto a través de las extensas redes comerciales de la ciudad, se desarrolló el estilo corintio, con representaciones estilizadas de animales y monstruos (Osborne 1996, 168). Durante el siglo VII, estos productos se comercializaron ampliamente en Grecia y más allá (Osborne 1996, 247), lo que convirtió a Corinto en el mayor exportador de cerámica fina en este momento y enriqueció a la ciudad.

Sin embargo, en el período arcaico tardío, la importancia económica de Corinto disminuyó a medida que las exportaciones de productos corintios se redujeron y la figura negra ateniense comenzó a dominar el mercado (Osborne 1996, 247). comerciantes del Egeo y el Cercano Oriente (ASCSA 1954, 13).

Durante gran parte del siglo VIII y principios del VII a. C., Corinto fue gobernada por una familia oligárquica, los Bacchiadae, que fueron desterrados en el siglo VII por Cypselus, quien se convirtió en tirano. Fue sucedido por su hijo Periandro. Después de la muerte de Periandro en 585 a. C. y el nuevo establecimiento de un gobierno oligárquico, los ciudadanos de Corinto celebraron con la construcción del Templo de Apolo (Hornblower 2002, 114), cuyos restos aún son visibles en la actualidad.

Los períodos clásico y helenístico

La evidencia escrita que discute sobre Corinto en los períodos clásico y helenístico es muy limitada. Al ser una oligarquía, en lugar de una democracia como Atenas, los magistrados de Corinto no tenían la obligación de rendir cuentas a los ciudadanos sobre la publicación de avisos públicos sobre leyes, decisiones y gastos del tesoro y, en cualquier caso, los avisos que alguna vez existieron habrían sido destruidos cuando el La ciudad fue saqueada por los romanos, con su característica eficiencia, en 146 a. C. (Hornblower 2002, 111). Se cree que Aristóteles escribió una obra titulada Constitución de los corintios, pero no ha sobrevivido (Hornblower 2002, 111). Sin embargo, la arqueología y otras fuentes antiguas como Herodoto y Tucídides proporcionan información valiosa sobre la política exterior de Corinto, si no la política interior.

En la segunda guerra persa (480-479 aC), Corinto todavía era lo suficientemente rico como para contribuir con 40 barcos a la defensa de Grecia (Hornblower 2002, 115), aunque además de esto, se construyó un muro cerca de Corinto que cruzaba el estrecho istmo para proteger el Peloponeso de los persas si las otras medidas fracasan (Hornblower 2002, 112).

En la guerra del Peloponeso a finales del siglo V a. C., Corinto se puso del lado de Esparta y, de hecho, animó a los espartanos a ir a la guerra con Atenas. Pero al final de la guerra, con el comercio y la industria pesquera obstaculizados por los bloqueos navales atenienses, la fortuna de Corinto había disminuido drásticamente y, aunque en el bando ganador, la ciudad fue una de las más afectadas por la guerra (Hornblower 2002, 115). ).

En la década de 390, Corinto se fusionó con su rival Argos, creando un solo estado gobernado por la democracia, en oposición a Esparta (Hornblower 2002, 115). Aproximadamente al mismo tiempo, Beocia y Atenas se unieron a Corinto y Argos en su oposición a la expansión espartana (Hornblower 2002, 210).

Durante el período helenístico, Corinto nunca fue una gran potencia, pero debido a su posición, tanto militar como económicamente fuerte, fue frecuentemente impugnada en conflictos entre las principales potencias de la época. En 308 a. C., Ptolomeo I, sucesor de Alejandro Magno, capturó la ciudad de Antígono, otro de los sucesores de Alejandro, pero Demetrio, el hijo de Antígono I, recuperó Corinto cuatro años después (Shipley 2000, 121-122). En la década de 240 a. C., Corinto fue nuevamente disputada, esta vez entre los Antigonids, que controlaban la mayor parte de Grecia, y la creciente Liga Aquea. Corinto fue capturado por primera vez por las fuerzas de la Liga Aquea en 249 a. C., pero Antígono II Gonatos recapturó la ciudad alrededor del 244 a. C. antes de que el general aqueo Aratos llevara Corinto permanentemente a la Liga Aquea en 243 a. C. (Shipley 2000, 127, 137-138).

El período romano

Inicialmente, cuando Grecia entró en contacto por primera vez con Roma, la ciudad italiana fue tratada de manera similar a las otras grandes potencias helenísticas y, de hecho, la ayuda de Roma en 197 a. C. fue bien recibida por la Liga Aquea en sus conflictos con las Antigónidas. Sin embargo, la Liga Aquea pronto descubrió, demasiado tarde, que la interferencia romana sería mucho más intrusiva que la de los Antigonids (Goodman 1997, 229). En medio siglo, Roma tenía una gran influencia, si no control directo, sobre el oeste de Grecia, pero no era popular. En Corinto, artesanos y obreros protestaron contra los enviados romanos.

Roma decidió anexar el territorio y llevar Grecia a la jurisdicción romana. Después de derrotar repetidamente a las fuerzas de la Liga Aquea, las fuerzas romanas llegaron a Corinto a principios del otoño del 146 a. C. La ciudad se rindió, pero no los salvó. La ciudad fue arrasada y sus ciudadanos asesinados o vendidos (Shipley 2000, 384-385).

Después de 146 a. C., Corinto estaba escasamente poblada evidencia de 'chozas miserables' que se pensaba que estaban ocupadas por ocupantes ilegales, de hecho no eran nada por el estilo, y parte de la arqueología interpretada como parte de esto no tiene mayor precisión de fecha que "después de finales de V o principios del siglo IV a. C. ”, mientras que otras secciones de la arqueología datan de una fecha posterior a la fundación de la colonia romana (Millis 2006, 404).

La ciudad fue refundada en 44 a. C., por Julio César, como una colonia de veteranos romanos en lugar del modelo griego clásico anterior, posiblemente como parte de las medidas para estimular la economía griega en crisis (Goodman 1997, 231). Como había sucedido a lo largo de la historia de la ciudad, la riqueza de Corinto dependía de su posición como centro de comercio, particularmente entre el este y el oeste (Walbank 2002, 259).

En el siglo I d.C., Corinto acogió a varios emperadores romanos y futuros emperadores, incluidos Nerón y Vespasiano en el 66 d.C., y más tarde el hijo de Vespasiano, Tito, en el 69, cuando se enteró de la muerte de Galba (Walbank 2002, 259). Como tal, los que estaban en el poder conocían el valor estratégico y económico de Corinto. Aunque Vespasiano revocó el derecho de Corinto a acuñar monedas, como parte de una reorganización de las finanzas imperiales, este derecho fue devuelto a la ciudad por Domiciano y, a partir de entonces, Corinto fue la principal casa de moneda de la provincia (Walbank 2002, 259).

Un extenso programa de construcción a fines del siglo I d.C. puede haber sido una reacción a un terremoto en los años 70. El programa incluyó la construcción de un nuevo odeo, la columnata en Lechaeum Road y la restauración de la antigua fuente Peirene en Akrocorinth (Walbank 2002, 260).

A Corinto le fue menos bien en el período romano posterior. La ciudad apenas se había recuperado de un terremoto en el 375 d.C. cuando, unas dos décadas después, fue atacada por los godos bajo el mando de Alaric y muchos habitantes fueron vendidos como esclavos (ASCSA 1984, 13). Más tarde, en el siglo VI, primero un terremoto y luego, unos veinte años más tarde, una plaga, hizo que la población y la fortuna de la ciudad declinaran drásticamente. Si bien el asentamiento continuó en el sitio, Corinto no recuperó la prosperidad nuevamente hasta el siglo XII, bajo el dominio bizantino (Sanders 2003, 395-396).

La historia de Corinto es uno de ciclos entre la prosperidad y la pobreza, su riqueza proviene del comercio, sus caídas, donde conocemos las razones de ellas, de guerras y desastres naturales. Su notable historia incluso convirtió a Corinto en candidata a la nueva capital griega después de la Guerra de Independencia griega en la década de 1830 (ASCSA 1954, 15). Más excavaciones y estudios futuros seguramente revelarán más de su fascinante historia.


Corinto (condado de Howard)

Corinto, llamado así por la Iglesia de Cristo local, originalmente se conocía como Wilton Settlement. La comunidad no incorporada en Brewer Township en el condado de Howard siempre ha sido un área agrícola. Desde la primera ola de asentamientos registrada en 1845, la comunidad ha perdido población, y en 2009 los residentes eran setenta.

Los indios caddo habitaban el área en el siglo XVI, pero habían sido trasladados a Oklahoma a mediados del siglo XIX. Un intercambio de tierras con los choctaw en la década de 1820 trajo más asentamientos de nativos americanos, lo que hizo que los inmigrantes blancos desconfiaran de mudarse al área por un tiempo.

En la década de 1840, Indian Removal despejó el camino para los inmigrantes blancos que se dirigían al oeste, y numerosas familias hicieron del área, luego en el condado de Pike, su hogar. Varios elementos hicieron que el área actual de Corinto fuera atractiva para los asentamientos. El transporte mejorado proporcionado por Military Road permitió a las familias del este acceder a buenos pastizales y fuentes de agua confiables. Un manantial en Wilton Settlement contribuyó al crecimiento de la comunidad. Una vez que se creó el condado de Howard en 1873, la sede del condado en Center Point, seis millas al oeste, permitió a los colonos hacer negocios con relativa facilidad. Los residentes todavía estaban a un día de viaje hasta el centro político y comercial del condado cuando la sede se trasladó a Nashville (condado de Howard) en 1905.

Los primeros colonos blancos registrados, David Dickens Jones y Jordan Reese de Tennessee, se establecieron en Wilton en 1845. Escribieron a casa sobre las oportunidades y, para 1850, había aproximadamente cuarenta familias del este en el condado. La oficina de correos de Wilton se estableció en 1857, y el resultado fue un pequeño centro comercial con almacenes generales, una desmotadora, un aserradero y un molino. La Iglesia de Cristo de Corinto se organizó en 1850 y fue la inspiración para el nuevo nombre de la comunidad en 1885.

La primera escuela pública en Corinto fue una estructura de troncos en 1862. La escuela se trasladó a varias estructuras a lo largo de los años y se cerró en 1939. Corinto también albergaba la Universidad de Nazareth, una universidad cristiana fundada por el tejano Colin McKinney Wilmeth en 1890. La universidad ofreció cuatro departamentos — Bíblico, Clásico, Industrial y Musical — y publicó un periódico semanal llamado Sereno. La Universidad de Nazaret aumentó la población de Corinto en 200 hasta la Depresión de 1893. Esto resultó en el cierre de la universidad en 1897.

Corinto nunca volvió a experimentar un gran crecimiento demográfico. La oficina de correos cerró en 1912 y la comunidad siguió siendo una parada agrícola y residencial rural en Military Road. A principios del siglo XX, el condado de Howard comenzó a producir melocotones Elberta. Highland Orchard introdujo el cultivo en el área alrededor de Corinto, y la mayoría de las granjas originales se convirtieron en huertos. Muchos residentes vendieron sus tierras y se mudaron para ser reemplazados por trabajadores temporales. La Gran Depresión, las heladas tardías, el movimiento de intermediarios a otros estados y la disminución de la producción de algodón en la década de 1950 obstaculizaron la expansión sostenida de Corinto.

En el siglo XXI, la comunidad consta de residencias dispersas, granjas ganaderas y tres cementerios. Los pueblos cercanos de Nashville, Camden (condado de Ouachita) y Hope (condado de Hempstead) satisfacen las necesidades comerciales y gubernamentales de los residentes, por lo que no ha habido ninguna actividad más allá del desarrollo agrícola desde que fallaron los cultivos de algodón.

Para informacion adicional:
Esperanza, Holly. "Antiguo cementerio de Corinto". Formulario de nominación del Registro Nacional de Lugares Históricos, 2011. Archivado en el Programa de Preservación Histórica de Arkansas, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Club de la herencia del condado de Howard. La historia del condado de Howard, Arkansas, 1873–1973. Nashville, AR: Nashville News, 1973.


La Sociedad Histórica de Corinto es una organización sin fines de lucro fundada en 1978 por un grupo de ciudadanos dedicados al estudio, colección y preservación de registros históricos, tradiciones y reliquias relacionados con la historia de Corinto y su gente. En la búsqueda de esto, la Sociedad lleva a cabo el estudio continuo de las condiciones históricas locales y ofrece eventos educativos y sociales de interés para el público con el fin de promover una mayor comprensión de las tradiciones y la historia de nuestra ciudad.

Como parte de esto, la Sociedad ha establecido y mantiene dos museos para albergar, exhibir y almacenar artefactos, reliquias y documentos relacionados con el pasado de Corinto & # 8230.

Museo de la Academia de Corinto en Cookeville está abierto al público los sábados por la mañana durante los meses de verano. Ver horario aquí ›

Museo Agrícola y Comercial de Corinto en East Corinth consta de la casa y el granero restaurados de Corliss-Prescott y también está abierto periódicamente al público. Ver horario aquí ›

Varios documentos de investigación de la Sociedad también están disponibles en la Blake Memorial Library. Además, la Sociedad lleva a cabo programas públicos periódicos presentados por historiadores locales y regionales sobre temas de interés variado.

La Sociedad brinda una oportunidad única para el compañerismo comunitario debido al hecho de que incluye entre sus miembros a personas de todas las edades y todos los intereses. Los nuevos miembros siempre son bienvenidos.

ÍNDICE ACTUALIZADO PARA & # 8216HISTORIA DE CORINTO & # 8217 LIBRO

COMPLEMENTAR SU LECTURA con el índice muy completo y esperado del libro, Historia de Corinto, Vermont: 1764-1964, cortesía de Jen Spanier. Descarga el índice aquí [pdf]

Museo de la Academia de Corinto

1767 Center Road
Corinto, VT 05039
Horario: julio y agosto & # 8211 sábados, 10:00 am & # 8211 mediodía, por donación

Museo Agrícola y Comercial de la Sociedad Histórica de Corinto

601 Village Road
East Corinth, VT 05040
Horario: Día del Trabajo o por acuerdo especial

Dirección de envio:

Sociedad Histórica de Corinto
c / o Norm Collette y Connie Longo
2283 Carretera secundaria
Corinto, VT 05039

Peter MacMurray, presidente
Lois Jackson, Vicepresidente
Jane White, Tesorero
Elaine Smith, Secretario
Directores en general: Norm Collette, Connie Longo, Emily Howarth, Dustin White


¿Vale la pena visitar la antigua Corinto?

Cuando hablamos de una visita a la antigua Corinto con un amigo, le preguntamos si alguna vez lo había estado. No lo había hecho, pero respondió que siempre había querido "sentir el lugar, caminar por la ciudad antigua y caminar por donde Paul había caminado". Probablemente resumió las dos razones más populares por las que la gente considera que vale la pena visitar la antigua Corinto. En primer lugar, disfrutar de la antigüedad secular, la historia y la arqueología de la ciudad y, en segundo lugar, experimentar algo sustantivo en relación con la fe personal. Si su interés es el último, su visita a la antigua Corinto sin duda le ayudará a contextualizar los escritos de Pablo. De cualquier manera, no te decepcionará. Puede considerar a la antigua Corinto como un maestro de nuestro pasado o como un informante del cristianismo primitivo bajo un gobierno romano formidable y antipático.

Llegar a la antigua Corinto en coche

Es muy sencillo llegar a la antigua Corinto. Si está conduciendo, tome la A6 / A8 desde Atenas y el sitio se encuentra a solo 5 km al sur de la moderna Corinto. Es posible que desee echar un vistazo rápido a nuestra publicación 7 Razones para conducir de Atenas a Delfos a través del Golfo de Corinto para comenzar.

Ya sea que llegue en automóvil o en autobús turístico, el punto de entrega es el estacionamiento ubicado justo afuera del museo y el edificio de administración. Hay un amplio espacio disponible en un aparcamiento cerrado.

Llegada a la antigua Corinto: aparcamiento, administración y museo

Moverse por las ruinas de la antigua Corinto

Las ruinas dispersas de la antigua Corinto pueden ser un poco difíciles de descifrar, por lo que hemos preparado el siguiente recorrido que esperamos le ayude, no solo a identificar cada estructura, sino también a comprender su propósito e importancia para la cultura de la antigua Corinto. ¿Es la ciudad que estás visitando? Luego imagina la ciudad como era y crea los eventos que te rodean. ¿Sigues a Paul? Luego véalo en las calles y en el mercado y sienta la intimidación que a veces habría sentido. Simplemente no mire los escombros.

Mapas de la antigua Corinto para ayudarte

Hemos encontrado dos mapas de dominio público de la antigua Corinto para ayudarlo a recorrer el sitio. El primer mapa de la antigua Corinto es una reconstrucción de Corinto, y el segundo mapa de la antigua Corinto está en formato esquelético y ha sido numerado para ayudarlo a identificar cada característica. Así que comencemos & # 8217s.


Corinto - Historia


Enciclopedia Bíblica Estándar Internacional

kor'-inth (Korinthos, "ornamento"): una ciudad célebre del Peloponeso, capital de Corintia, que se encuentra al norte de Argólida, y con el istmo unía la península al continente. Corinto tenía tres buenos puertos (Lechaeum, en el Corinthian, y Cenchrea y Schoenus en el Golfo Sarónico), y así dominaba el tráfico de los mares del este y del oeste. Los barcos más grandes no podían atravesar el istmo (Hch. 27: 6,37). Los barcos más pequeños fueron tomados por medio de un tranvía para barcos con rieles de madera. Los fenicios, que se asentaron aquí muy temprano, dejaron muchas huellas de su civilización en las artes industriales, como el teñido y el tejido, así como en su religión y mitología. El culto corintio de Afrodita, de Melikertes (Melkart) y de Athene Phoenike son de origen fenicio. Poseidón, también, y otras deidades del mar eran tenidos en alta estima en la ciudad comercial. Se cultivaron diversas artes y los corintios, incluso en los primeros tiempos, eran famosos por su inteligencia, inventiva y sentido artístico, y se enorgullecían de superar a los demás griegos en el adorno de su ciudad y en el adorno de sus templos. Había muchos pintores célebres en Corinto, y la ciudad se hizo famosa por el orden de arquitectura corintio: un orden que, por cierto, aunque muy estimado por los romanos, fue muy poco utilizado por los propios griegos. También fue aquí donde el ditirambo (himno a Dioniso) fue arreglado artísticamente por primera vez para ser cantado por un coro y los juegos ístmicos, que se llevaban a cabo cada dos años, se celebraban en las afueras de la ciudad en el istmo cerca del golfo Sarónico. Pero más tarde prevaleció el espíritu comercial y materialista. Ni un solo corintio se distinguió en literatura. Los estadistas, sin embargo, abundaban: Periander, Phidon, Timoleon.
Los puertos son pocos en el golfo de Corinto. Por tanto, ninguna otra ciudad podría arrebatarle el comercio de estas aguas a Corinto. Según Tucídides, los primeros barcos de guerra se construyeron aquí en el 664 a. C. En aquellos primeros días, Corinto ocupaba una posición de liderazgo entre las ciudades griegas, pero como consecuencia de su gran prosperidad material, no arriesgaría todo como lo hizo Atenas y ganaría la supremacía eterna sobre los hombres: tenía demasiado que perder para poner en peligro sus intereses materiales por principio. , y pronto se hundió en la segunda clase. Pero cuando Atenas, Tebas, Esparta y Argos cayeron, Corinto volvió al frente como la ciudad más rica e importante de Grecia y cuando fue destruida por Mumio en 146 a. C., los tesoros del arte llevados a Roma eran tan grandes como aquellos. de Atenas. Delos se convirtió en el centro comercial durante un tiempo, pero cuando Julio César restauró Corinto un siglo después (46 a. C.), creció tan rápidamente que la colonia romana pronto se convirtió nuevamente en uno de los centros más destacados de Grecia. Cuando Pablo visitó Corinto, la encontró como la metrópoli del Peloponeso. Los judíos acudieron en masa a este centro de comercio (Hechos 18: 1-18 Rom 16:21 y siguientes 1 Cor 9:20), el lugar natural para un gran mercado, y floreciendo bajo la mano generosa de los Césares y esta es una de las razones por las que Pablo permaneció allí tanto tiempo (Hechos 18:11) en lugar de residir en los antiguos asientos de la aristocracia, como Argos, Esparta y Atenas. Encontró un núcleo judío fuerte para empezar y estaba en comunicación directa con Éfeso. Pero el terremoto, la malaria y el severo dominio turco finalmente arrasaron con todo, excepto siete columnas de un antiguo templo dórico, el único objeto sobre el suelo que queda hoy para marcar el sitio de la antigua ciudad de riqueza, lujo e inmoralidad: la ciudad del vicio. párrafo excelencia en el mundo romano. Cerca del templo se han excavado las ruinas de la famosa fuente de Peirene, tan celebrada en la literatura griega. Directamente al sur de la ciudad se encuentra la roca alta (más de 1800 pies) Acrocorinthus, que formó una fortaleza inexpugnable. Antes de que se iniciaran las excavaciones para el canal actual, se vieron las huellas del antiguo canal de navegación a través del istmo (intentado por Nerón en 66-67 d. C.). En este momento la ciudad era completamente romana. De ahí los muchos nombres latinos en el Nuevo Testamento: Lucius, Tertius, Gayo, Erasto, Quartus (Rom 16: 21-23), Crispo, Titus Justus (Hechos 18: 7,8), Fortunatus, Achaicus (1 Cor 16: 17). Según el testimonio de Dio Chrysostomus, Corinto se había convertido en el siglo II de nuestra era en la ciudad más rica de Grecia. Pausanias describe en detalle sus monumentos, edificios públicos y tesoros artísticos.
La iglesia de Corinto estaba formada principalmente por no judíos (1 Corintios 12: 2). Al principio, Pablo no tenía la intención de hacer de la ciudad una base de operaciones (Hechos 18: 1 16: 9,10) porque deseaba regresar a Tesalónica (1 Tesalonicenses 2: 17,18). Sus planes fueron cambiados por una revelación (Hechos 18: 9,10). El Señor le ordenó que hablara con valentía, y así lo hizo, permaneciendo en la ciudad dieciocho meses. Al encontrar una fuerte oposición en la sinagoga, dejó a los judíos y se fue a los gentiles (Hechos 18: 6). Sin embargo, Crispo, el gobernante de la sinagoga y su casa eran creyentes y los bautismos eran numerosos (Hechos 18: 8) pero ningún corintio fue bautizado por el mismo Pablo, excepto Crispo, Gayo y algunos de la casa de Estéfanas (1 Corintios 1:14, 16) "las primicias de Acaya" (1 Co 16,15). Uno de ellos, Gayo, fue el anfitrión de Pablo la próxima vez que visitó la ciudad (Romanos 16:23). Silas y Timoteo, que habían quedado en Berea, llegaron a Corinto unos 45 días después de la llegada de Pablo. Fue en este momento que Pablo escribió su primera Epístola a los Tesalonicenses (1 Tesalonicenses 3: 6). Durante la administración de Galión, los judíos acusaron a Pablo, pero el procónsul se negó a permitir que el caso fuera llevado a juicio. Esta decisión debe haber sido vista con el favor de una gran mayoría de los corintios, quienes tenían una gran aversión por los judíos (Hechos 18:17). Pablo conoció también a Priscila y Aquila (Hch 18: 18,26 Rom 16: 3 2 Tim 4:19), y más tarde lo acompañaron a Éfeso. Pocos años después de la primera visita de Pablo a Corinto, los cristianos habían aumentado tan rápidamente que formaban una congregación bastante grande, pero estaba compuesta principalmente por las clases bajas: no eran `` eruditos, influyentes ni de noble cuna '' (1 Cor. 1:26).
Pablo probablemente salió de Corinto para asistir a la celebración de la fiesta en Jerusalén (Hechos 18:21). Poco se sabe de la historia de la iglesia en Corinto después de su partida. Apolos vino de Éfeso con una carta de recomendación a los hermanos en Acaya (Hechos 18:27 2 Cor 3: 1) y ejerció una influencia poderosa (Hechos 18: 27,28 1 Cor 1:12) y Pablo bajó más tarde de Macedonia. Su primera carta a los corintios fue escrita desde Éfeso. Tanto Tito como Timoteo fueron enviados a Corinto desde Éfeso (2 Corintios 7: 13,15 1 Corintios 4:17), y Timoteo regresó por tierra y se encontró con Pablo en Macedonia (2 Corintios 1: 1), quien visitó Grecia nuevamente en 56- 57 o 57-58.

LITERATURA.
Leake, Travels in the Morea, II, 229-304 Peloponnesiaca, 392 ff Curtius, Peloponnesos, II, 514 ff Clark, Peloponnesus, 42-61 Conybeare y Howson, The Life and Epistles 'of Paul, capítulo xii Ramsay, "Corinto" (en HDB) Holm, Historia de Grecia, I, 286 y siguientes II, 142 y 306-16 III, 31-44 y 283 IV, 221, 251, 347 y 410-12.
J. E. Harry Información bibliográfica
Orr, James, M.A., D.D. Editor general. "Definición de 'corinto'". "Enciclopedia bíblica estándar internacional". bible-history.com - ISBE 1915.

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Corinto

Cuando Pablo llegó en 51 EC, la Corinto que vio tenía poco más de 100 años, pero era cinco veces más grande que Atenas y la capital de la provincia. Ancient Corinth, the original Corinth, founded in the 10th Century BCE, had been the richest port and the largest city in ancient Greece. Strategically located guarding the narrow isthmus that connects the Peloponnesus (as southern Greece is called) to the mainland, it was a powerful commercial center near two seaports only 4 miles apart. Lechaeum, the western harbor in the Corinthian Gulf was the trading port to Italy and Sicily, and Cenchreae, the eastern harbor in the Saronic Gulf, was the port for the eastern Mediterranean countries. Periander (ca. 625-585 BCE) had constructed a five foot wide rock-cut tract (Gk. diolkos ) for wheeling small ships and their unloaded cargo from one gulf to the other. By 400 BCE, a double wall ran from the city to Lechaeum to protect a two mile rock paved street, about 40' wide, leading to the port.

When Rome demanded the dissolution of the Achaian League, Corinth, the leader, resisted and so Lucius Mummius, the Roman consul, leveled the city in 146 BCE, killed the men and sold the women and children into slavery. Some of the wealthier families escaped to the island of Delos. For the next 100 years, only a handful of squatters occupied the site. Julius Caesar refounded the city as a colony in 44 BCE, named it Colonia Laus Julia Corinthiensis and populated it with conscripted Italian, Greek, Syrian, Egyptian and Judean freed slaves. New Corinth, as Ancient Corinth, thrived.

"Within just a few years, new Corinth's settlers' enormously profitable commerce at this crossroads of the nations had brought thousands more eager settlers from all over the Mediterranean and enormous personal wealth to a local ruling class of self-made women and men." [Horsley and Silberman, The Message and the Kingdom, p. 163] The wealthy Greek families who had fled to Delos also returned.


Roman imperial ruins: the spring of Peirene. los
arched openings led to bowls carved in the rock
where water collected.

Commentators usually assume that Corinth was an especially licentious city, a reputation it seems to have had in ancient times. Indeed, one of the Greek verbs for fornicate was korinthiazomai, a word derived from the city's name. Apparently this estimation was based on Strabo's report of 1,000 sacred prostitutes in the temple of Aphrodite on the Acrocorinth, an 1886-foot hill that rises above the city to the south. Recent scholars point out, however, that the charge was more likely an Athenian slander against the pre-146 BCE city since sacred prostitution was a Middle East custom, not a Greek one. No doubt Corinth, like other large port cities, had plenty of prostitutes to service the sailors, but they were not sacred. The Acrocorinth, the acropolis of the ancient city, was heavily fortified during the Middle Ages. Nothing is left of the fabled temple to Aphrodite, but remains of the medieval fortifications, which were built on earlier foundations, may still be seen from the western side.
Paul Settles Down

It's easy to see why Paul chose Corinth as headquarters for his mission to the west. The city was young, dynamic, not hidebound by tradition, a mix of dislocated individuals without strong ethnic identities seeking to shed their former low status by achieving social honor and material success. Paul was not intimidated by a big, bustling, cosmopolitan hub city, with no dominant religious or intellectual tradition, for Corinth shared many characteristics with Tarsus, his home town, and Syrian Antioch, his home church city. The heart of the city, the forum, was filled with temples and shrines to the emperor and various members of his family, built alongside temples to the older Greek gods such as Apollo. Apollo's son, Asklepios, the god of healing, had a shrine there as well as at Epidaurus, the ancient site of miracle healings, about 50 miles southeast.


Little remains of the ancient city of Corinth. These ruined arches and entryways to shops on what was once the agora call on the tourist's imagination to see the gleaming buildings, complete with statuary, they once were.

Luke's account of Paul's stay in Corinth is found in Acts 18:1-18. According to the story, after some initial success in the synagogue, but with considerable conflict, he decides to concentrate on the non-Jews, apparently with significant success. He settles in and stays for 18 months, working as a tentmaker and living with fellow tentmakers, Aquila and his wife Pricilla (Prisca in his letters), two of the Jews expelled from Rome by Emperor Claudius in a general expulsion. His success may have led to his being dragged before Gallio, the Roman proconsul, by the local Jews for heresy. Gallio dismisses the charge as a purely intra-Jewish affair. Soon afterwards Paul leaves, accompanied by Aquila and Pricilla, bound for Antioch, but on the way they stop over in Ephesus.


Colonies

Like many other Greek states, Corinth established colonies, included Corfu and Syracuse in Sicily. This enabled them to develop trading links, and so helped with their exports.

In the 5th C BC Athens became the dominant power in the region. But after the war between Athens and Sparta (which Sparta won), Corinth took back some of her influence as one of the Greek cities in the “League of Corinth” under the leadership of Philip of Macedon and his son Alexander the Great.

This plan shows the main structures which have been excavated in ancient Corinth. As you will see, most of them are from the Roman era.

This schematic map contains additional content and photos.

Click on grey shapes or blue markers for name and description. Click on pale symbol markers for photos.

Try the enlarged view and the satellite view (found at bottom of pop-up menu).

Corinth history – decline and fall

Corinth history tells us that due to earthquakes and invasions the city lost its importance. The earthquake of 521 AD completely destroyed the city, and only a small settlement grew up on the site of the old agora in the 10th C AD. Trade bypassed it, and Corinth never regained its former status, whether under the rule of the Franks, the Venetians or the Turks.


1. Introduction and Background to 1 Corinthians

Before we begin our study of the first chapter of 1 Corinthians, it would be good for us to view the book as a whole as summarized in this outline:

Introduction: Salutation (verses 1-3) and Thanksgiving (verses 4-9)

Dealing With Divisions / Unholy Separation

Dealing With Sin / Biblical Separation

Questions Answered: Commitments (7) and Convictions (8-10)

Church Conduct—Diversity Without Divisions

The Doctrine of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ

Introducción

A number of years ago, one of the seminary students in our congregation left for a summer ministry in the South. During that week, we received word that his car had broken down on the way and that he was stranded. It was reported as a matter for prayer, but in jest, someone suggested the church send “Bob” to fix the car. My response was that, while I may be able to “heal the sick” (automotively speaking), I am not able to “raise the dead!”

While a student in seminary, I became friends with a student who was a veterinarian. I always teased him by telling him his ministry could be preaching in a church that was going to the dogs. I wonder just how one would feel about being sent to a church like the one in Corinth, as described in the two epistles of Paul to the Corinthians. Frankly, from a purely human point of view, the situation in Corinth appears to be hopeless.

And yet when we read these introductory verses to this epistle, Paul is positive, upbeat, and optimistic. His prayers concerning this church are filled with expressions of thanksgiving. ¿Cómo puede ser esto? How can Paul be so positive and optimistic as he communicates with this church? One thing is certain—it is not because of the godly conduct of many of its members.

Paul’s first words to the Corinthians are not just a repetition of a standard form, a kind of “boiler plate” greeting, as though he were using a pre-packaged computer program which needed nothing else but to fill in the name of the church. The salutation of this epistle provides us not only with a demonstration of Paul’s optimism and enthusiasm in writing to these saints, it also indicates how he can be so positive about this troubled body of believers. More than this, it begins to lay a theological foundation for Paul’s ministry and teaching as it will be given throughout the epistle. This salutation tells us not only how Paul feels about this church, but why he feels as he does. Gordon Fee has this to say about the importance of these first nine verses of 1 Corinthians:

With the elaborations of this letter Paul begins a habit that will carry through to the end. In each case the elaborations reflect, either directly or subtly, many of the concerns about to be raised in the letter itself. Even as he formally addresses the church in the salutation, Paul’s mind is already at work on the critical behavioral and theological issues at hand. 1

The Founding of the Church at Corinth

At the end of Paul’s so-called first missionary journey with Barnabas, the Jerusalem Council met to decide just what should be required of Gentile converts (Acts 15:1-29). When Paul and Barnabas went their separate ways, Paul took Silas with him and set out on what was to be called the second missionary journey of Paul (Acts 15:36-41). They began by revisiting some of the churches that had been founded on the first journey, delivering to them the decision of the Jerusalem Council (16:4-5).

After being divinely prohibited from preaching in Asia (Acts 16:6) and Bithynia, Paul, Silas, and Timothy ended up at Troas, where Paul received the “Macedonian vision” (16:9-10), which brought them 2 to Philippi where a number were saved and a church was established. From Philippi, Paul and his party went to Thessalonica, then to Berea, and finally to Athens (Acts 17). From Athens, Paul went to Corinth, an ancient city of Greece, the seat of government of the Roman province of Achaia. It was in Corinth that Paul first crossed paths with a Jew named Aquila and his wife Priscilla. Like Paul, this man was a tent-maker. He and his wife had fled from Italy because of a command from Claudius that all Jews must leave Rome (Acts 18:1-3). Every Sabbath, Paul went to the synagogue, where he sought to evangelize Jews and Greeks (18:4). Eventually he was joined by Silas and Timothy, who had just arrived from Macedonia. Apparently they brought a gift from the Macedonians which enabled Paul to fully devote himself to the Word, so that he gave all of his efforts to preaching Christ (18:5).

As usual, Paul’s preaching prompted a reaction from the unbelieving Jews, so that he left the synagogue and began to concentrate on evangelizing Gentiles (18:6-7). Paul moved his headquarters to the house of a man named Titius Justus, a Gentile God-fearer who lived next door to the synagogue (18:5-7). Crispus, the leader of the synagogue, became a believer along with the rest of his household. Many other Corinthians were also being saved as well and were submitting to baptism (18:8). The Lord appeared to Paul in a vision, assuring him that there were many more souls to be saved in that city and that he was not to fear. He was to speak out boldly, rather than to hold back for fear of trouble (18:9-10). 3 As a result, Paul extended his ministry in Corinth, staying a total of 18 months, a considerably longer period of ministry than usual.

Paul’s lengthy ministry was facilitated, in part, by Jewish litigation and by the precedent-setting ruling of Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia (18:12-17). The Jews seized Paul and brought him up on charges before Gallio. They accused him of being neither a faithful Jew nor a good citizen. They accused him of speaking and acting against the law. Paul did not even get the opportunity to speak in his own defense. Before he could open his mouth, Gallio gave his ruling. This strife between Paul and the Jews was but another instance of the in-fighting which was so typical of the Jews. Gallio was fed up with it and with them and was not about to be used by these Jewish zealots to prevail over their Jewish rivals. This was not a matter for his judgment. He threw them and their case out of court.

From all we are told of him, Gallio was a pagan who cared nothing for the Jews, the gospel, or Paul. And yet his ruling was a landmark decision, officially legitimizing and protecting those who preached the gospel throughout the entire Roman Empire. Judaism was an official religion, recognized and sanctioned by the Roman government. The Jews were seeking to convince Gallio that Paul was really no Jew and that the preaching of the gospel was not the practice of Judaism. Thus, they inferred, Paul was a threat to the stability of Roman rule. They argued that neither Paul nor any other Christian should be allowed to preach the gospel under the permission and protection of the Roman law. When Gallio refused to rule on this matter, calling it a Jewish squabble, he was declaring Paul’s preaching of the gospel to be the practice of Judaism. Christianity, Gallio’s ruling indicated, was Jewish and thus protected by Roman law. Thus, Paul’s ministry was legal, and any Jewish opposition could not claim Rome as their ally.

Gallio drove them away from his judgment seat. The Jews were furious, and in retaliation they seized Sosthenes, the leader of the synagogue, and began to beat him in front of the proconsul. He looked on with disdain, not at all impressed or concerned. This Sosthenes seems to be the same person who is with Paul as he writes to the Corinthians (1:1).

The City of Corinth

Secular history only verifies and clarifies the impression of the city of Corinth which we gain from the pens of Luke (Acts) and Paul (1 and 2 Corinthians). It was a great city in many ways. Politically, Corinth was the capital city of the Roman province of Achaia, a territory including nearly all of Greece. That is why Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia, was in Corinth and heard the charge against Paul. Geographically, Corinth was so strategically located it could hardly do other than prosper. The city was situated on a plateau overlooking the Isthmus of Corinth, two miles distant from the Gulf. 4 Nearby was the Acrocorinth, a 1900-foot mountain that was perfectly suited as a citadel for the city. This fortress was so secure it was never taken by force until the invention of gun-powder. 5 It also contained an inexhaustible water supply in the fountain of Peirene. 6 At the summit of Acrocorinth was the temple of Aphrodite, the goddess of love. At the base of the citadel stood the temple of Melicertes, the patron of seafarers. 7

Located on an isthmus, Corinth became a crossroads for both land and sea trade. By looking at a map, one can quickly see that Corinth is situated between two large bodies of water and two land areas, and these are virtually surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Were it not for the isthmus on which Corinth was founded, the southern part of Greece would be an island in the Mediterranean Sea. Goods exchanged between the north and south would normally be shipped by land through Corinth.

Much of the sea trade of the Mediterranean from east to west also passed through Corinth. To the west of Corinth was the port city of Lechaeum on the Gulf of Corinth. On her east was the port of Cenchrae on the Saronic Gulf. These were ports of call for ships that sailed the seas. Travel across the isthmus and through Corinth was generally considered safer than the 200-mile voyage around Cape Malea, the most dangerous cape in the Mediterranean. 8 So dangerous was this journey by sea that the Greeks had two sayings well known to sailors in those days: “ Let him who sails round Malea forget his home, ” and, “ Let him who sails round Malea first make his will. ” 9

To avoid the distance and danger of the journey around the Cape of Malea (now called Cape Matapan 10 ), goods would be unloaded at one port, transported across the four-mile strip of land (through Corinth), and reloaded on the other side. Smaller ships were actually transported with their cargo over the isthmus by means of rollers. Consequently, the isthmus was named the Diolkos , “the place of dragging across.” 11 Nero had planned a canal to join the Aegean and Ionian seas, and he even began construction in A.D. 66. The three and one-half mile canal was finished in 1893. 12

Corinth thus became a great commercial center. Luxuries from all over the world were available, and the vices of the world were also to be found there. These evils did not all have to be imported, however, for the temple of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, was nearby with 1,000 cult prostitutes who sold themselves in the name of religion. The Greeks had a proverb about the city which tells a great deal about its moral decay: “ It is not every man who can afford a journey to Corinth. ” 13 Those who were worldly wise used the verb “corinthianize” to describe an act of immorality. “Corinthian girl” was known to be a synonym for prostitute. 14

Estimates of the population of Corinth range from 100,000 to 600,000. The diversity of peoples who lived in this city is explained by her history. In Paul’s day, Corinth was a very old and yet a very new city. “ Signs of habitation date back to the fourth millennium B.C. ” 15 Alexander made Corinth the center of a new Hellenic League as he prepared for war with Persia. 16 In 146 B.C., the city was destroyed by Roman soldiers because it led the Greek resistance to Roman rule. All the males of the city were exterminated, and the women and children were sold for slaves. 17 The city was rebuilt by Julius Caesar 100 years later, and it eventually became the capital of the province of Achaia. Many of those who settled in Corinth were not Greeks. A large number of Roman soldiers settled there after retiring, having received their freedom and Roman citizenship in addition to grants of land. 18 A variety of nationalities settled in Corinth, enticed by the prospects of economic prosperity. A good number of the immigrants were Jews.

Being a relatively recent city with newly acquired wealth brought problems, for there was the absence of an established aristocracy which would have provided a much more stable society. Farrar spoke of Corinth in this way:

… this mongrel and heterogeneous population of Greek adventurers and Roman bourgeois, with a tainting infusion of Phoenicians this mass of Jews, ex-soldiers, philosophers, merchants, sailors, freedmen, slaves, trades-people, hucksters and agents of every form of vice … without aristocracy, without traditions and without well-established citizens. 19

Every two years Corinth presided over the Isthmian Games, a contest in which all the Greek city-states took part. At these games, the sea-god Poseidon was specially honored. 20

The Occasion for Writing 1 Corinthians

After Paul had completed his 18-month ministry in Corinth, he set out for Syria with Priscilla and Aquila. On reaching Ephesus, Paul ministered for a short time, promising to return if the Lord willed (18:19-21). He left Priscilla and Aquila there and journeyed on to Caesarea, Jerusalem and Antioch (Acts 18:18-22). After strengthening the churches in Asia Minor, Paul returned to Ephesus for a much more extensive ministry. He stayed in Ephesus, teaching in the school of Tyrannus for two years. While in Ephesus, he seems to have received unfavorable reports about the Corinthian church which prompted him to write his first letter to this church, a letter which was not preserved as a part of the New Testament canon (1 Corinthians 5:9-11).

Later, while Paul was still ministering the Word in Ephesus, he heard from some of “ Chloe’s people ” that divisions were beginning to emerge among the Corinthian saints. In addition, Paul was informed of a case of gross immorality in the church, one with which the church had not dealt. Instead of feeling shame and sorrow over this sin, at least some of the saints were proud of their tolerance (chapter 5). He heard also of Christians taking their fellow-believers to court, seeking to have pagans pass judgment on spiritual matters (chapter 6). Paul was also told of unbecoming conduct at the Lord’s Supper (chapter 11) and of doctrinal error concerning the resurrection (chapter 15). A three-man delegation consisting of Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus also arrived from Corinth (16:17) bringing a letter which inquired of Paul about marriage (7:1), virgins (7:25), food sacrificed to idols (8:1), spiritual gifts (12:1), the collection for the saints (16:1), and Apollos (16:12). It was while he was in Ephesus that Paul wrote 1 Corinthians in response to the reports and questions he received there. 21

Paul’s Preamble (1:1-3)

1 Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, 2 to the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours: 3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

That Paul should write such a letter as this should come as no surprise to us and certainly not to the Corinthians. After all, Paul had already written one epistle which was not preserved for us. Paul was the one who first came to Corinth with the gospel. Many of the members of the church in Corinth were the fruit of his ministry (1 Corinthians 9:2 2 Corinthians 3:1-4). Paul wrote with apostolic authority. By the will of God, he was chosen and called as an apostle. He wrote with full authority. His words were not to be ignored.

Paul addresses his epistle to the church at Corinth and then proceeds to define the church. This is a very important definition to which we should give our full attention. First, Paul wants us to be assured that the church belongs to God. How often we hear churches identified in terms of who the pastor is. That is ______’s church, and we fill in the blank with the pastor’s name. When we do so, we indicate our deep and fundamental difference with Paul who believed that the church belongs to God. God is the One who brought the church into existence through the shed blood of His Son, Jesus Christ. God is the One who sustains His church. It is God’s church.

Generally speaking, the term “church” is defined in terms of two categories: (a) the local church and (b) the church universal. The local church is understood as that body of believers who gather regularly in one place. The “universal church” consists of all believers in every place and in the whole course of church history.

I do not wish to differ with these two definitions of the church. They are probably useful ways of considering groups of believers. But the “local church” and the “universal church” are not entirely consistent with Paul’s use of the term as he employs it in the New Testament. Here, the church is defined as (a) “ those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling ,” and (b) “ all who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ ” (verse 2).

We might be inclined to think of this first category as “the local church.” In a sense, it is. But when Paul speaks of the church, he simply refers to a group of believers. Sometimes this group is a “house church,” a group of believers meeting in a certain person’s home (Romans 16:5, 19 Colossians 4:15 Philemon 1:2). These “house churches” may have met in a larger gathering, as did the saints in Jerusalem (see Acts 2:46). Then, Paul referred to the “city church,” that is, the group of all believers in a particular city (see Revelation 2 and 3), or the church at a particular city (Acts 11:22 13:1 18:22 Romans 16:1). This is the way Paul referred to the Corinthian church, the “ church of God which is at Corinth ” (1 Corinthians 1:2 2 Corinthians 1:1). Finally, Paul speaks of the church as all those living at one time, who have trusted in Jesus Christ for salvation.

I fear our view of the church is either too narrow (the local church— our church) or too broad (all those who have ever lived and trusted in Christ for salvation). We pray for our missionaries, the missionaries we have sent out from our local church, or more broadly, from our denominational group. A few churches share with those in need within their own fellowship or local church . When the new believers (the church ) at Antioch heard a famine was coming upon the world, they enthusiastically began to prepare to give to their brethren in Judea. They understood, even at this early stage in their growth and maturity, that the church is bigger than the local church.

When we hear of disasters taking place around the world, do we immediately begin to consider the impact on our brethren, our fellow members of the world-wide church, and act accordingly? I fear we do not, at least to the degree we should. With such rapid communications in our time, we could easily and quickly learn of the trials and tribulations of fellow believers, no matter where they are in the world. And our ability to respond is also significantly easier than it was for the saints of Antioch. Let us begin to think of the church in Paul’s terms, rather than in the narrower terms to which we are accustomed.

In this broader sense of the church, we see that Paul’s epistle, though addressed to the saints at Corinth, was also written to the church at large. Look once again at the first two verses of Paul’s salutation: “Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, to the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours.”

This broader element in Paul’s salutation is important because it reminds us that “church truth” is “church truth.” That is, Paul’s teaching to the saints at Corinth is just as applicable and just as authoritative for the church at Philippi, or Ephesus, or Dallas. Too many have tried to avoid Paul’s teaching in his Corinthians Epistles by insisting he is speaking to a very special and unique problem found only in Corinth. This simply does not square with Paul’s words. His instructions to the Corinthians apply to every other saint:

16 I exhort you therefore, be imitators of me. 17 For this reason I have sent to you Timothy, who is my beloved and faithful child in the Lord, and he will remind you of my ways which are in Christ, just as I teach everywhere in every church (1 Corinthians 4:16-17).

33 for God is not a God of confusion but of peace, as in all the churches of the saints. 34 Let the women keep silent in the churches for they are not permitted to speak, but let them subject themselves, just as the Law also says (1 Corinthians 14:33-34).

It has also been pointed out that in addressing the church at Corinth, Paul does not distinguish any one believer or group of believers from any other. We shall soon see that the Corinthian church was plagued with the dilemma of divisions. Here, Paul does not address the church other than as one group of believers, equally lost as unbelievers, and now equally saved through the person and work of Jesus Christ. Furthermore, Paul is careful to emphasize that the standing of the saints in Corinth and elsewhere is solely the result of the grace of God manifested through the Lord Jesus Christ. There are no grounds for boasting, except in the person and work of Christ.

Paul’s Thanksgiving (1:4-9)

4 I thank my God always concerning you, for the grace of God which was given you in Christ Jesus, 5 that in everything you were enriched in Him, in all speech and all knowledge, 6 even as the testimony concerning Christ was confirmed in you, 7 so that you are not lacking in any gift, awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ, 8 who shall also confirm you to the end, blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9 God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.

Somehow, an expression of thanksgiving is not what I would have expected from Paul at this point in time. Here is a church that has begun to listen to false teachers and who is challenging Paul’s authority. Here is a church which condones immorality and “unconditionally accepts” a man whose sin shocks the unbelieving pagans of that city. Here is a church whose personal conflicts are being aired out before unbelieving eyes in secular courts. How can Paul possibly give thanks?

Paul does not give thanks for the sins and failures of these saints. Paul gives thanks to God for what He has done and for what He will ultimately do for His children. Paul first gives thanks for the “ grace of God ,” which He has given the saints in Christ Jesus (verse 4). Grace is unmerited favor, and we must surely agree that these saints—not to mention ourselves—are unworthy. The good things which have already been accomplished, and all those good things yet to be accomplished, are manifestations of God’s infinite grace, bestowed upon those who are unworthy.

Paul gives thanks for the sufficiency of God’s grace to the saints as articulated in verses 5-7.

5 That in everything you were enriched in Him, in all speech and all knowledge, 6 even as the testimony concerning Christ was confirmed in you, 7 so that you are not lacking in any gift, awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

God’s grace to the saints in Corinth and everywhere was boundless. He enriched them in everything. They were enriched in all speech and all knowledge. This was achieved through the preaching of the “ testimony of Christ ,” as it was confirmed in each and every believer. The Corinthians had no critical need for which God had not made provision through the apostolic preaching of Christ. Were there false teachers who indicated the Corinthians were lacking and that they needed more of something? They were liars! God had already provided all that was necessary for “ life and godliness ” in Christ (see 2 Peter 1:2-4). No gift was lacking in the church. God had provided just the right gifts for the growth and maturity and ministry of the saints in Corinth. If the church at Corinth was failing, it was not due to any failure on God’s part to provide for their needs, but rather a failure on their part to appropriate these means.

Finally, Paul expressed his thanksgiving for the faithfulness of God and the resulting assurance that He would complete that which He had begun in the Corinthian saints (verses 7-9). Elsewhere, Paul put it this way:

6 For I am confident of this very thing, that He who began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Christ Jesus (Philippians 1:6).

12 For this reason I also suffer these things, but I am not ashamed for I know whom I have believed and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him until that day (2 Timothy 1:12).

These saints were eagerly awaiting the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ (7a). Their salvation had not only the past and present benefits, referred to earlier, but a future hope. As motley a crew as this Corinthian church proved to be, their salvation and security were God’s doing. Consequently, Paul had great confidence concerning this church and the future of each saint. Paul thanked God because He would confirm these saints to the end. What God had started, He would finish. They were secure, and their hope was certain, just as Peter also writes:

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4 to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you, 5 who are protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time (1 Peter 1:3-5).

While these Corinthian saints may not consistently be faithful, God is faithful. It is through His faithfulness that each believer has been called to salvation. It is because of His faithfulness that we will persevere and enter into His kingdom, blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

No wonder Paul is thankful. In spite of the stumbling and sin which is evident in the Corinthian church, God has saved the saints there. He has sufficiently provided for their every spiritual need. He has purposed to present them faultless when He establishes His kingdom. Paul therefore is assured that his ministry is not in vain, because the salvation and sanctification of the saints in Corinth and elsewhere are the work of God. The God who called these saints and destined them for glory is the God who called Paul to be an apostle and to minister to these saints. Paul’s work is not in vain, for his work is ultimately God’s work.

Conclusión

Paul is writing to a very troubled church, a church which exists in the midst of a very corrupt city and culture. In spite of this, Paul has a very confident mood as he addresses the saints at Corinth and around the world of his day and ours. I notice that in spite of the weaknesses and willful sins of these saints, Paul does not begin by questioning the reality of their conversion, but by affirming the present and future benefits. There are texts which do question the reality of the faith of persistently wayward professing believers, but this is not one of them. These saints need to be reminded of the certainty of their salvation. The certainty of their salvation rests not within themselves, but in the One who called them and the One who will complete all that He has begun. This certainty also assures Paul that his continued ministry to this church is not in vain.

This book of 1 Corinthians should cause us to reject the myth of the perfect New Testament church. We often refer to ourselves at Community Bible Chapel as a “New Testament church.” We are that in the sense that our church is patterned after the principles set down in the New Testament. We have no one “pastor,” who is the head of the church, but we recognize that Christ is the only Head of the church. We are governed by a plurality of elders. We have a weekly observance of the Lord’s Supper, and we encourage believers to exercise their spiritual gifts in a way that edifies the whole body. We do not wish to imply by the expression “New Testament church” that we are a perfect church or even that we are a good church at all times.

So often Christians look back to the New Testament times as though the church in those days was nearly perfect. If you read the Book of Acts the way I do, there is a wonderful period of bliss in the infancy of the church, but this lasts only from late in chapter 2 to the end of chapter 4. In chapter 5, a couple is struck dead for lying to the Holy Spirit. In chapter 6, there is strife between two groups of Jews over the care of their widows. And by the time we get to the Corinthian church, it is far from perfect and hardly what could be called good. The final words of our Lord to the seven churches of Asia in Revelation 2 and 3 are not complimentary either. The church was not perfect in New Testament times, and neither is it perfect today. The same sins which Paul exposes in 1 and 2 Corinthians are present and evident in evangelical churches today. And so Paul’s words of admonition and correction are just as applicable to us today as they were to the saints of his day.

We deceive ourselves if we think we can retreat within the church walls to escape the evils of the world. The Corinthians Epistles inform us that the world too easily and quickly finds its way into the church. The church is not the place where we go to escape from sin it is the place where we go to confront our sin and to stimulate each other to love and good deeds. The church is not a Christian “clean room” where we can get away from sin it is a hospital, where we can find help and healing through the ministry of the Word and prayer.

The church is not the place which is kept holy by keeping sinners away. It is the place where newly born sinners are brought, so that they can learn the Scriptures and grow in their faith. All too often, new believers feel unwelcomed by the church. The church is afraid of newly saved sinners because they do not really understand holiness or sanctification. Let us not strive to preserve the purity of the church by keeping out the newly saved pagans. Let us strive to preserve the purity of the church by throwing out some of the professing saints who boast only of the time they have put in at the church but whose profession of faith is hypocritical (see 1 Corinthians 5).

If there was hope for the Corinthians, then there is hope for anyone. The first nine verses of this epistle are saturated with reason for hope. Do you know someone who is hopelessly lost, who is not just disinterested in the gospel but adamantly opposed to it? Then take hope from the two men from whom this letter is sent. The apostle Paul was once Saul, the Saul who stood by and held the garments for those who stoned Stephen, the Paul who went from city to city seeking to find Christians whom he could arrest and even put to death. This man is now willing to give his life for the sake of the gospel.

If I understand the text correctly, Sosthenes is another Saul. In Acts 18, we are told that Crispus, the synagogue leader in Corinth, came to faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. It appears that Sosthenes is his replacement. I understand him to be the leader of the opposition to Paul and the church in Corinth. At his instigation, it would seem, charges were brought against Christianity before Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia (Acts 18:12-17). When Gallio refuses to hear this case, it is clear that Paul and the church have won. In frustration and anger, the unbelieving Jews turn on Sosthenes, their leader, beating him as Gallio watched, unmoved. Now, Sosthenes is a traveling companion of Paul’s, a brother in the Lord. Two of the most hostile unbelievers are now brothers in the Lord. Is there hope for the lost? There most certainly is!

If there is hope for the lost, there is also hope for those who are saved but whose life falls far short of the standard set by the Scriptures. Here is a church that seems almost beyond hope. There are divisions, immorality, and opposition to the apostle Paul and to apostolic teaching. Is Paul discouraged? Does Paul give up hope? ¡No! Paul’s first words to this church are those of hope and confidence. Paul’s confidence and hope are not in the Corinthians, in their good intentions, or in their diligent efforts. His hope is in the One who called him and who called the Corinthian saints as well. His hope is in the fact that God has abundantly provided for every spiritual need in that church. His hope is in the faithfulness of the God who started the good work in these believers and who is committed to bring it to completion.

Have you ever felt that a loved one or a friend were hopeless? They may be a believer, but their life is a mess. This epistle reminds us that there is hope for such a saint. Have you ever felt that you were beyond help, beyond hope? This epistle is for you. Its first words to you remind you of the character and the work of God in the saints, through the work of His Son, Jesus Christ . Cease trusting in yourself, in your good intentions, in your efforts, and once again place your trust in the One who alone can save and sanctify. Heed Paul’s words of warning and of instruction. If there is hope for Saul and Sosthenes and for saints at Corinth, there is hope for anyone.

1 Gordon D. Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company [reprint], 1993), p. 28.

2 It seems that here at Troas Dr. Luke joined the party, for beginning in Acts 16:10, Luke changes from the third person (he, they) to the second (us, we).

3 This is certainly not the typical impression which we have of Paul. We think of him as a kind of religious pit bull, who simply cannot be stopped or silenced. This vision strongly implies that Paul was fearful and that without God’s encouragement, Paul may have held back for fear of Jewish reprisals.

4 A Rupprecht, “Corinth,” The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible , Merrill C. Tenney, General Editor (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975), I, p. 960.

6 F. F. Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary: I and II Corinthians (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1971), p. 18.

8 William Barclay, The Letters to the Corinthians , rev. ed. (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1975), p. 2.

12 D. H. Madvig, “Corinth,” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia , rev. ed., Geoffrey W. Bromiley, General Editor (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., I, p. 773.

13 Barclay, Corinthians , p. 3.

18 “When a Roman soldier had served his time, he was granted the citizenship and was then sent out to some newly-founded city and given a grant of land so that he might become a settler there. These Roman colonies were planted all over the world, and always the backbone of them was the contingent of veteran regular soldiers whose faithful service had won them the citizenship.” Barclay, Corinthians , p. 4.


Ver el vídeo: Corinth Canal 4K Classical Greece 4 (Mayo 2022).


Comentarios:

  1. Roshan

    Bravo, creo que este es el pensamiento excelente.

  2. Shakashicage

    Lo acepto con gusto. En mi opinión, esta es una pregunta interesante, participaré en la discusión. Juntos podemos llegar a la respuesta correcta. Estoy seguro.

  3. Roderic

    Hay un sitio sobre el tema que le interesa.

  4. Yul

    Estoy de acuerdo, la información útil.

  5. Tezuru

    la calidad es mierda y también la norma

  6. Hardy

    Fue especialmente registrado en un foro para decirle gracias por la ayuda en esta pregunta ¿Cómo puedo agradecerle?



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